The World wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main worldwide standards organization for the World large Web (abbreviated WWW or W3). The W3C mission is to lead the World large Web to its full potential by emerging protocols and guidelines the ensure the long-term growth of the Web.

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Contents:1 W3C History2 Specification mature 2.1 working draft (WD) 2.2 Candidate reference (CR) 2.3 Proposed referral (PR) 2.4 W3C recommendation (REC) 2.5 later on revisions3 Administration4 W3C membership 4.1 member benefits5 W3C Standards

Founded and currently led by Tim Berners-Lee, the consortium is consisted of of member institutions which maintain full time staff because that the function of working with each other in the breakthrough of standards for the World wide Web. Together of June 2016, the World vast Web Consortium (W3C) has much more than 420 members.

The W3C also engages in education and outreach, establishes software and also serves as an open up forum for discussion about the Web.

W3C History

The World large Web Consortium (W3C) was established by Tim Berners-Lee after he left the European company for Nuclear research (CERN) in October, 1994. The was founded at the Massachusetts institute of technology Laboratory for computer Science (MIT/LCS, CSAIL) with support from the europe Commission and also the Defense progressed Research Projects agency (DARPA), which had actually pioneered the Internet and also its predecessor ARPANET.

The company tries to foster compatibility and also agreement amongst industry members in the adoption of new standards defined by the W3C. Incompatible versions the HTML are offered by various vendors, resulting in inconsistency in just how web pages are displayed. The consortium do the efforts to gain all those vendors to carry out a set of core principles and components which are liked by the consortium.

It was initially intended the CERN organize the european branch of W3C; however, CERN wished to focus on fragment physics, not info technology. In April 1995, the French academy for research study in computer system Science and Automation (INRIA) ended up being the European organize of W3C, with Keio University becoming the Japanese branch in September 1996.

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History of the Web and also W3C timeline graphic till 2004.

Starting in 1997, W3C created local offices roughly the world. Together of September 2009, it had actually eighteen world Offices extending Australia, the Benelux nations (Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Belgium), Brazil, China, Finland, Germany, Austria, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, southern Korea, Morocco, southern Africa, Spain, Sweden, and the united Kingdom and Ireland.

In October 2012, W3C convened a ar of major web players and also publishers to establish a MediaWiki wiki that looks for to document open internet standards dubbed the WebPlatform and WebPlatform Docs.

W3C specification maturation

Sometimes, once a specification becomes also large, the is break-up into live independence modules which can mature at their very own pace. Subsequent execution of a module or specification are well-known as levels and also are denoted by the first integer in the title (e.g. CSS3 = Level 3). Succeeding revisions on every level space denoted by an integer following a decimal suggest (e.g. CSS2.1 = revision 1).

The W3C typical formation process is identified within the W3C procedure document, outlining four (4) maturity levels through which each brand-new standard or recommendation should progress.

1 – functioning draft (WD)

After sufficient content has actually been gathered native ‘editor drafts’ and also discussion, it may be published as a working draft (WD) for review by the community. A WD file is the very first form that a typical that is publicly available. Commentary by practically anyone is accepted, despite no guarantees are made with regard to activity on any details element comment upon.

At this stage, the standard document may have far-reaching differences native its last form. Together such, anyone who implements WD standards must be prepared to considerably modify your implementations together the typical matures.

2 – Candidate referral (CR)

A candidate recommendation is a variation of a typical that is more mature than the functioning draft (WD). At this point, the team responsible because that the traditional is satisfied that the typical meets that is goal. The purpose of the CR is to elicit aid indigenous the breakthrough community regarding how implementable the traditional is.

The standard record may readjust further, yet at this point, far-ranging features are mainly decided. The architecture of those functions can still readjust due to feedback native implementors.

3 – Proposed recommendation (PR)

A proposed reference is the variation of a typical that has passed the prior two levels. The customers of the standard administer input. At this stage, the file is it is registered to the W3C Advisory Council for last approval.

While this action is important, the rarely causes any far-ranging changes to a standard as it passes to the next phase.

Both candidates and also proposals may get in “last call” come signal that any kind of further feedback should be provided.

4 – W3C recommendation (REC)

This is the most mature stage of development. In ~ this point, the standard has undergone considerable review and also testing, under both theoretical and also practical conditions. The standard is now endorsed through the W3C, indicating its readiness because that deployment come the public, and also encouraging much more widespread support amongst implementors and also authors.

Recommendations have the right to sometimes be enforced incorrectly, partially, or not at all, yet many standards specify two or an ext levels of conformance the developers should follow if they wish to brand their product together W3C-compliant.

Later specification revisions

A recommendation may be to update or prolonged by separately-published, non-technical errata or editor drafts till sufficient an extensive edits accumulate for creating a brand-new edition or level the the recommendation. Additionally, the W3C publishes assorted kinds the informative note which are to be supplied as references.

Certification of specifications?

Unlike the ISOC and other international standards bodies, the W3C go not have actually a certification program. The W3C has actually decided, for now, the it is not perfect to start such a program, owing to the hazard of creating an ext drawbacks for the community than benefits.

W3C administration

The W3 Consortium is jointly administered by the:

The W3C also has civilization Offices in sixteen regions around the world. They work with their regional web communities to encourage W3C modern technologies in local languages, increase the W3C’s geography base and encourage international participation in W3C Activities.

The W3C has a staff team that ~80 people worldwide as of 2015. W3C is run by a monitoring team i m sorry allocates resources and also designs strategy, led through CEO Jeffrey Jaffe (as of in march 2010), previous CTO of Novell. It additionally includes one advisory board which support in strategy and legal matters and also helps solve conflicts. The majority of standardization job-related is done by external experts in the W3C’s assorted working groups.

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W3C is led by Tim Berners-Lee and also Jeffrey Jaffe. They space supported by a employee of technical experts.

W3C membership

The Consortium is administrate by the membership. The perform of members is accessible to the public. Members encompass businesses, non-profit organizations, universities, government entities, and also individuals. Organizations join W3C to journey the direction of main point Web modern technology and exchange principles with industry and also research leaders.

The biggest russian find engine Yandex together a member of the W3C:

Membership needs are transparent except for one requirement: an application for membership have to be reviewed and also approved by the W3C. Many guidelines and requirements are proclaimed in detail, however there is no last guideline about the procedure or standards whereby membership can be ultimately approved or denied.

The expense of membership is offered on a sliding scale, relying on the personality of the organization applying and the nation in which that is located. Nations are categorized through the civilization Bank’s many recent group by GNI (Gross national Income) every capita.

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W3C member benefits

The W3C members themselves have actually indicated that what is most crucial to them around their member is:

Interaction. The possibility to interact and also work directly with the leading companies, organizations, and also individuals in the net world.Strategy. The capability to carry out strategic direction come the Consortium through review of W3C task proposals and also operational policies.Participation. Authorized in W3C functioning Groups, interest Groups, and Business Groups, shaping the innovations that permit businesses and their customers.

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) additionally benefit:

Partnership. V a range of online and also in-person opportunities, W3C helps SMEs accomplish their peers and also establish brand-new business relationships.Early Access. Agility can allow SMEs to out-perform their bigger rivals. Agility with Membership can help SMEs stay ahead that the competition and enter brand-new markets early.Leverage. Structure a market around a brand-new usage the the Web can be a major obstacle because that the development of smaller sized companies. To bring an idea deployed to the range of the Web, W3C standardization administer a unique opportunity come achieve wide adoption on varied software and devices.Education. The world’s experts on the internet exchange and confront your points of see in W3C groups. It’s difficult to beat conversations through W3C partners together a way to find out in depth exactly how the internet works, and also how to do it better.Promotion. SMEs can promote your commitment to open up standards, through push release and also home web page testimonials, sponsorship visibility, interviews, and more.

And research organizations also benefit:

Forum because that ideas. W3C is an open forum for the exchange of ideas and an innovation solutions, giving researchers insights from approximately the world.Bridge indigenous research. W3C helps research organizations develop a leg from their innovations to market implementation.

W3C standards

W3C standards define an Open internet Platform because that application development that has the extraordinary potential to enable developers to build rich interactive experiences, powered by substantial data stores, that are accessible on any type of device. Although the limits of the platform proceed to evolve, market leaders speak almost in unison around how HTML5 will be the cornerstone for this platform. But the full strength the the platform counts on many much more technologies that W3C and its partners space creating, including CSS, SVG, WOFF, the Semantic internet stack, XML, and also a range of APIs.

W3C creates these technological specifications and guidelines with a procedure designed to maximize consensus about the contents of a technical report, to ensure high technical and editorial quality, and also to earn endorsement through W3C and also the wider community.

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W3C proceeds to evolve to provide the community a productive environment for developing Web standards. W3C standards:

are produced following a consensus-based decision process;consider facets of accessibility, privacy, security, and also internationalization;reflect the views of diverse industries and worldwide stakeholders;balance speed, fairness, publicly accountability, and quality;benefit indigenous Royalty-Free patent licensing commitments indigenous participants;are secure (and W3C looks for to ensure their persistence at the released URI);benefit from vast review from teams inside and outside W3C;are can be downloaded at no cost;are kept in a predictable fashion;are strengthened through interoperability testing.

W3C and IETF criter (over web protocol suite):

CGICSSDOMGRDDLHTMLMathMLOWLP3PPROVRDFSISRSKOSSMILSOAPSPARQLSRGSSSMLSVGVXMLXHTMLXHTML+VoiceXMLXML EventsXML SchemaXPathXQueryXSL-FOXSLTWCAGWOFFWSDLXForms