The magnetic moment of a system actions the strength and the direction the its magnetism. The term itself usually refers to the magnetic dipole moment. Anything the is magnetic, like a bar magnet or a loop of electrical current, has actually a magnetic moment. A magnetic moment is a vector quantity, through a magnitude and also a direction. An electron has an electron magnetic dipole moment, created by the electron"s intrinsic rotate property, making it an electric charge in motion. There are numerous different magnetic forms: consisting of paramagnetism, and diamagnetism, ferromagnetism, and anti-ferromagnetism.

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Paramagnetism

Paramagnetism refers to the magnetic state of an atom through one or an ext unpaired electrons. The unpaired electrons space attracted by a magnetic field because of the electrons" magnetic dipole moments. Hund"s rule states that electrons must occupy every orbital singly before any kind of orbital is double occupied. This might leave the atom with plenty of unpaired electrons. Due to the fact that unpaired electrons can spin in one of two people direction, they screen magnetic moment in any kind of direction. This capability allows paramagnetic atoms to be attracted to magnetic fields. Diatomic oxygen, (O_2) is a great example the paramagnetism (described via molecular orbit theory). The following video clip shows liquid oxygen attracted right into a magnetic field developed by a solid magnet:


Figure 2.7.1: As shown in the video, molecular oxygen ((O_2) is paramagnetic and is attracted to the magnet. Incontrast, molecular nitrogen, (N_2), however, has no unpaired electrons and it is diamagnetic (this ide is disputed below); it is because of this unaffected by the magnet.

There space some exception to the paramagnetism rule; these problem some shift metals, in which the unpaired electron is not in a d-orbital. Examples of this metals include (Sc^3+), (Ti^4+), (Zn^2+), and also (Cu^+). These steels are the not defined as paramagnetic: castle are considered diamagnetic because all d-electrons space paired. Paramagnetic compounds sometimes display bulk magnetic properties due to the clustering the the metal atoms. This phenomenon is well-known as ferromagnetism, yet this home is not debated here.


Diamagnetism

Diamagnetic building materials are identified by combine electrons—except in the previously-discussed situation of change metals, there room no unpaired electrons. Follow to the Pauli exemption Principle which claims that no two identical electrons may take increase the same quantum state at the exact same time, the electron spins room oriented in opposite directions. This causes the magnetic areas of the electron to release out; for this reason there is no net magnetic moment, and also the atom cannot be attracted into a magnetic field. In fact, diamagnetic substances room weakly repelled through a magnetic field as demonstrated v the pyrolytic carbon paper in figure 2.7.2.

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How to tell if a substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic

The magnetic kind of a substance have the right to be determined by analyzing its electron configuration: if it shows unpaired electrons, climate the problem is paramagnetic; if all electrons are paired, the substance is diamagnetic. This process can be damaged into four steps:

find the electron configuration draw the valence orbitals Look for unpaired electrons determine whether the substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic

Example 2.7.1: Chlorine Atoms

Step 1: uncover the electron configuration

For Cl atoms, the electron construction is 3s23p5

Step 2: attract the valence orbitals

Ignore the core electrons and also focus on the valence electron only.

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Step 3: Look for unpaired electrons

There is one unpaired electron.

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Step 4: identify whether the problem is paramagnetic or diamagnetic

Since over there is an unpaired electron, Cl atoms are paramagnetic (albeit, weakly).


Example 2.7.2: Zinc Atoms

Step 1: discover the electron configuration

For Zn atoms, the electron construction is 4s23d10

Step 2: attract the valence orbitals

determine if the ion is diamagnetic or paramagnetic.