IB HomeStandard LevelTopic 1: statistics AnalysisTopic 2: CellsTopic 3: chemistry of Life3.2 Carbohydrate, Lipid & ProteinTopic 4: GeneticsTopic 5: Ecology and also EvolutionTopic 6: health and wellness & PhysiologyHigher LevelTopic 7: Nucleic mountain & ProteinTopic 8: Respiration & picture ..Topic 9: plant ScienceTopic 10: GeneticsTopic 11: wellness & PhysiologyOptionsOption A: Nutrition & HealthOption B: Physiology the ExerciseOption C: Energy and also CellsOption D: EvolutionOption E: Neurobiology & Behav..Option F: Microbes & Biotech..Option G: Ecology & Conservat..Option H: additional PhysiologyAdditional Resources

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3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins


3.2.1 Distinguish in between organic and also inorganic compounds

Organic compounds are compounds comprise carbon that are found in living points - except hydrogen carbonates (HCO3-), carbonates (CO32-) and oxides the carbon (CO, CO2)Inorganic compounds space all other compounds (there are less various inorganic compounds than organic compounds)


Carbohydrates are organic link consisting the one or more simple sugars that as monomers follow the general an easy formula that (CH2O)x

Note: exceptions to this an easy formula and also the consist of of other atoms (e.g. N) have the right to occur

3.2.2 determine glucose and also ribose indigenous diagrams showing their structure

Glucose (C6H12O6) Ribose (C5H10O5)


3.2.3 list three examples each of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides

Monosaccharides:  Glucose, galactose, fructose

Disaccharides: Lactose, maltose, sucrose

Polysaccharides: Cellulose, glycogen, starch

3.2.4 State one role of glucose, lactose and also glycogen in animals and also of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants


Glucose: A source of power which deserve to be broken down to kind ATP via to move respiration

Lactose: A sugar found in the milk the mammals, providing energy for suckling infants

Glycogen: provided by animals for short term energy storage (between meals) in the liver


Fructose: uncovered in honey and also onions, it is very sweet and a good source the energy

Sucrose: Used mainly as a transportable energy type (e.g. Sugar beets and sugar cane)

Cellulose: supplied by plant cells as a strengthening ingredient of the cell wall

3.2.5 synopsis the function of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationship between monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides

Condensation (dehydration) reactions happen when molecules are covalently join together and water is developed as a by-productIn carbohydrates, the bond the is formed is dubbed a glycosidic linkageThe the opposite of a condensation reaction is a hydrolysis reaction, which requires a water molecule to break a covalent bond in between two subunitsMonosaccharides are solitary monomers that room joined to form disaccharides, while street containing lot of subunits (more 보다 10) are referred to as polysaccharides

A Condensation Reaction in between Two Monosaccharides




3.2.5 outline the function of condensation and also hydrolysis in the relationship between fatty acids, glycerol and also triglycerides

A condensation reaction occurs between the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol and the carboxyl teams of three fatty acidsThis reaction develops a triglyceride (and 3 molecules that water)The bond in between the glycerol and the fatty acids is one ester linkageWhen one of the fat acids is changed by a phosphate group and phospholipid is formedHydrolysis reactions will, in the presence of water, break these molecules down right into their ingredient subunits

Formation of a Triglyceride

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3.2.6 State three features of lipids

Structure:  Phospholipids space a main component of cabinet membranes

Hormonal signalling: Steroids are connected in hormone signalling (e.g. Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone)

Insulation: fats in animals can serve as warm insulators when sphingolipids in the myelin sheath (of neurons) deserve to serve as electrical insulators 

Protection:  Triglycerides may type a tissue layer about many key internal guts and carry out protection versus physical injury

Storage that energy: Triglycerides can be provided as a long-term energy storage source

3.2.7 compare the use of carbohydrates and also lipids in power storage


Complex carbohydrate (e.g. Polysaccharides) and also lipids both save a many chemical energy and also can be used for energy storageComplex carbohydrates and lipids are both insoluble in water - they are not conveniently transportedCarbohydrates and also lipids both burn cleaner 보다 proteins (they do not productivity nitrogenous wastes)


Lipid molecules contain much more energy per gram 보다 carbohydrates (about twice as much)Carbohydrates are an ext readily digested 보다 lipids and release your energy more rapidlyMonosaccharides and disaccharides room water soluble and easier to carry to and from storage sites 보다 lipidsAnimals often tend to use carbohydrates generally for short-term energy storage, if lipids space used much more for long-term power storageCarbohydrates are stored together glycogen in pets while lipids room stored together fats (in plants carbohydrates space stored as cellulose and also lipids as oils)Lipids have actually less result on osmotic press within a cabinet than complicated carbohydrates

Types that Amino Acids

3.2.5 synopsis the duty of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationship in between amino acids and also polypeptides

A condensation reaction occurs between the amino group (NH2) of one amino acid and also the carboxylic acid team (COOH) of one more amino acidThis reaction develops a dipeptide (plus a molecule of water) that is held together by a peptide bondMultiple amino acids deserve to be joined with each other to kind a polypeptide chainIn the presence of water, polypeptides can be damaged down right into individual amino acids via hydrolysis reactions