Some atom are more stable once they gain or lose an electron (or perhaps two) and form ions. This fills their outermost electron shell and also makes castle energetically an ext stable. Because the number of electrons does no equal the variety of protons, every ion has a net charge. Cations are optimistic ions that are developed by shedding electrons. Negative ions are developed by gaining electrons and also are dubbed anions. Anions are designated by their elemental name being changed to end in “-ide”: the anion the chlorine is referred to as chloride, and also the anion the sulfur is called sulfide, for example.

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This movement of electrons from one element to another is referred to as electron transfer. As Figure 1 illustrates, salt (Na) only has actually one electron in its outer electron shell. It takes less power for salt to donate the one electron than it does to expropriate seven an ext electrons to fill the external shell. If salt loses an electron, it now has actually 11 protons, 11 neutrons, and only 10 electrons, leave it through an as whole charge of +1. It is now referred to as a salt ion. Chlorine (Cl) in that lowest power state (called the ground state) has actually seven electron in its external shell. Again, that is much more energy-efficient because that chlorine to gain one electron 보다 to lose seven. Therefore, it tends to obtain an electron to develop an ion v 17 protons, 17 neutrons, and also 18 electrons, providing it a net an unfavorable (–1) charge. It is now referred to as a chloride ion. In this example, sodium will certainly donate the one electron to north its shell, and also chlorine will accept that electron to to fill its shell. Both ions now accomplish the octet rule and also have finish outermost shells. Since the variety of electrons is no longer equal to the variety of protons, every is now an ion and has a +1 (sodium cation) or –1 (chloride anion) charge. Note that these transactions can usually only take ar simultaneously: in order because that a salt atom to shed an electron, it need to be in the visibility of a suitable recipient like a chlorine atom.


Figure 1. In the formation of one ionic compound, metals lose electrons and also nonmetals acquire electrons to attain an octet. Ionic bonds space formed between ions with opposite charges. For instance, positively charged salt ions and negatively charged chloride ions bond with each other to make crystals of salt chloride, or table salt, developing a crystalline molecule v zero network charge.


Ionic bonds are formed in between ions with opposite charges. For instance, positively charged sodium ions and also negatively charged chloride ion bond with each other to make crystals of salt chloride, or table salt, developing a crystalline molecule v zero net charge.

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Certain salt are described in physiology as electrolytes (including sodium, potassium, and also calcium), ions necessary for nerve advertise conduction, muscle contractions and water balance. Many sports drinks and also dietary supplements carry out these ion to change those shed from the body via sweating during exercise.