I to be definitely missing something. recognize how many valence electron come from each subshell in the adhering to atoms: ns in PO4^3- O in PO4^3- i took this to typical that the inquiry is questioning how numerous v.e. Space being added by O and also P. So O has 6 valence electron (it is in team 6), and 6*4 is 24. A total of 24 valence electrons. Similar method for p would give 5v.e. Exactly how does Kaplan get 10 because that P and 8 for O?
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I think they room asking because that the total variety of electrons because that each of the atoms once they room in the structure for this reason if you draw out the structure, you have 5 binding on ns which way 10 electron (5 are coming from P and 5 are covalently mutual from O) and for O, each oxygen has actually the 8 electron in full when the is part of this structure

ns agree the Q is a little bit confusing together worded yet if they space sticking through the exactly answer (which renders no point out of subshells??), illustration the Lewis structure on questions prefer these can make them easier to resolve correctly. Below we deserve to see there space 10 total valence electrons around P and 8 full valence electrons about each Oxygen.

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The answer claims there are 2 s-electrons, 6 p-electrons, and 2 d-electrons. I understand just how you gain 10 valence electron total, yet can someone please define where the 2 d electrons come from because that the p in PO_4 (3-)?
This is exactly how I thought around it. Fact: All facets in duration three and below top top the periodic table have the right to accept electrons right into their d subshell. Process: The electron construction (shorthand) for p is 3s2 3p3 so you obtain 5 valence electrons from P. The oxygens additionally contribute 5 valence electrons with bonding. This offers us a complete of 10 electrons. We understand that the s subshell deserve to only organize 2 electrons and the ns subshell have the right to only organize 6 electrons. This will certainly account for 8 out of the 10 electrons. However, now the s and p subshells room full. The last 2 electrons are hosted in P"s d subshell (which is usually empty for elemental phosphorus). A comparable thing in reality happens when assessing the sulfur in a sulfate ion. 4 electrons finish up beginning the sulfur"s d subshell.
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Don"t get Psyched: how would you recognize that oxygen will contribute 5 valence electrons v bonding without drawing a Lewis structure, or is that your reasoning after seeing there are 5 bond to ns (thus, 10 electrons in complete for P)? I simply wanted to recognize if i am lacking something in your logic. Numerous thanks!
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