H2O is the molecular formula that water, one of the major constituents the the Earth. A single molecule is consisted of of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, which are bonded v the covalent bond. Moreover, 2 or much more H2O molecules attach with the aid of hydrogen binding to form a compound.

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It is interesting to realize that the covalent bonds space stronger 보다 the hydrogen bonds, the is the reason why water easily reacts with the bulk of the chemical elements from the routine table.

The Lewis structure, or likewise called an electron dot structure, is a diagrammatic depiction of identify the total variety of valence electrons present in an atom, i beg your pardon are all set to undergo bond development to form a molecule and also ultimately a compound.

The valence electrons are displayed by illustration them together dots roughly the prize of the atom, greatly in pairs.

The maximum variety of dots that deserve to be attracted is eight per atom, as per the octet rule. Moreover, the development of a bond because of reacting valence electrons are shown with the aid of the lines.

The atomic number of a hydrogen atom is one, which makes its digital configuration 1s1. As the 1s shell deserve to accommodate a best of two electrons, over there is a dearth that one more electron.

It provides a solitary hydrogen atom to have one valence electron.

Besides this, in the case of oxygen, its digital configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p4 where 2p shell have the right to accommodate six electrons.

As there is a dearth of 2 electrons, the total number of valence electrons in an oxygen atom is six.

What are the valence electrons?

The valence electrons space ‘free electrons’ present in the outermost covering of the atom. The nucleus stop the outer shell weakly as it is the furthest in the distance.

Moreover, if the valence electrons are unpaired, they end up being highly reactive in nature by one of two people accepting or donating electrons to stabilize the outermost shell.

It is interesting to realize that the larger the variety of valence electrons, the stronger will be the capacity to accept the electrons.

Whereas, the smaller sized the variety of valence electrons, the stronger will it is in the capability of the atom to donate them.

What is the Octet rule?

According to the Octet rule, the preferably of valence electrons the an atom can have is eight. Moreover, these eight electron are drawn only about the price of the atom in the Lewis structure.

The oxygen has a dearth of two valence electrons. Whereas, the 2 hydrogen atoms have a dearth of two valence electrons in total.

The Lewis framework of H2O is attracted in together a manner the the deficiency of each atom is fulfilled.

Lewis structure of H2O

The Lewis structure of hydrogen and 2 oxygen atoms mirrors a full of eight valence electrons get involved in the bond development to kind a single triatomic H2O molecule.

Here, we have to understand just how the Lewis structure is drawn for the H2O molecule:

Look for the full valence electrons: the is eight to form a solitary H2O molecule.Look for how many electrons space needed: the is four for one water (H2O) molecule follow to the octet rule.Find the total variety of bonds forming: solitary covalent bonds between each oxygen and hydrogen atom.Choose a central atom: The Oxygen atom will be the central atomDraw the lewis diagram:


The Geometrical structure of the H2O molecule

The shortcut angle among hydrogen-oxygen-hydrogen atoms (H-O-H) is 104.5°. Indigenous this, it can be taken that the geometrical framework of a single H2O molecule is bent.

It is described with the assist of the Valence shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory, which says why regardless of of having actually two bag of lone electrons on the oxygen atom the bond edge is decreased to 104.5°.

The ideal bond angle for a bent-shaped molecule is 109.5°.

According to the Lewis structure, over there exists lone pair when all the valence electrons around the atom are not paired.

Similar is a situation of the oxygen atom in the H2O molecule, where two lone pairs exist.

These lone pairs distort the bond angle because of the lone pair-lone pair, i beg your pardon is more than the link pair-bond pair and also lone pair-bond pair repulsion.

When the lone pair increases, the bond edge decreases. As there are two lone bag on the oxygen atom, the reduces the bond angle to 104.5°.

Hybridization of H2O molecule

The bond in between each oxygen and hydrogen atom in a water molecule is sigma (σ) v no pi (π) bonds.

As us know, sigma (σ) bonds space the strongest covalent bonds. Together a result, there is high stability in between the oxygen and also the hydrogen atom.

It is the two lone bag on the oxygen atom which makes all the difference. The hybridization that a water (H2O) molecule is sp3, whereby its oxygen has been hybridized.

According to the diagram, it have the right to be analyzed the the single oxygen atom in the water (H2O) molecule has actually one 2s orbital and three 2p orbitals. These four altogether leads to the development of 4 sp3 hybridized orbitals.

It leads to the formation of the tetrahedral bend geometry, where in its entirety H2O molecule mirrors 25% characteristics of s and 75% characteristics of the ns orbital.

It can more be explained with the assist of a molecular orbital diagram of the H2O molecule.


The 2s orbital and three 2p orbitals of the oxygen atom develops four brand-new hybrid orbitals which further bonds by experience overlapping through the 1s orbit of the hydrogen atoms.

Molecular orbital diagram the water (H2O)


The molecular orbital diagram is a pictorial representation that determining chemistry bonding in between the molecules of a compound.

Furthermore, the molecular orbit diagram helps through determining how two sigma bonds have actually been formed and also the result of the lone pairs on the structure.

From the above diagram, it have the right to be watched that the six valence electrons are bonding with the 1s orbital electrons the the hydrogen atom.

The mixing and also overlapping space occurring among the atomic orbital of comparable energy.

It is occurring in such a manner the the bonding electrons in lower energy are developing antibonding molecule orbitals of greater energy.

The left oxygen electrons perform not overlap further due to the scarcity the electrons.

The oxygen atom has its electronegativity greater than hydrogen. Due to this, oxygen has actually a greater negative charge, conversely, hydrogen has a optimistic charge. It renders oxygen attract surrounding electrons and type a bond ultimately.

On the various other hand, the hydrogen does no react with nearby molecules as it has already fulfilled that orbital and also bonded v oxygen through a sigma bond, i m sorry is not easy to break.

It leader to the development of polarity in one H2O molecule, regardless of of having a net neutral charge.

You can also check an interesting write-up written about the polarity in water.


The Lewis structure of the triatomic H2O molecule reflects two solitary sigma bonds in between the oxygen atom and also the hydrogen atoms. Moreover, these bonds leave 2 lone pairs of electron on the oxygen atom that greatly contributes to the tetrahedral bend geometrical structure of the H2O molecule.

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It is the factor why the shortcut angle that should have actually been 109.5° is 104.5°. The hybridization of the H2O molecule is sp3 since it has actually one s orbital and also three ns orbitals mixing to type four hybrid orbitals.