The relational data model was introduced by C. F. Codd in 1970. Currently, it is the many widely supplied data model.

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The relational model has detailed the basis for:

Research top top the concept of data/relationship/constraintNumerous database design methodologiesThe typical database accessibility language dubbed structured questions language (SQL)Almost all modern commercial database management systems

The relational data model defines the world as “a arsenal of inter-related connections (or tables).”

Fundamental ideas in the Relational Data Model


relation, also known as a table or file, is a subset that the Cartesian product of a perform of domains characterized by a name. And within a table, each heat represents a group of associated data values. A row, or record, is additionally known as a tuple. The columns in a table is a field and also is likewise referred to together an attribute. Girlfriend can additionally think of that this way: an attribute is provided to define the record and also a record includes a set of attributes.

The steps listed below outline the logic between a relation and its domains.

Given n domains are denoted by D1, D2, … DnAnd r is a relation characterized on this domainsThen r ⊆ D1×D2×…×Dn


A database is composed of many tables and also each table stop the data. Number 7.1 shows a database that includes three tables.

Figure 7.1. Database with three tables.


A database stores pieces of information or truth in an arranged way. Understanding exactly how to use and get the most out that databases requires us to know that method of organization.

The principal storage units are referred to as columns or fields or attributes. These residence the straightforward components the data right into which your content can be broken down. Once deciding which fields to create, you have to think generically about your information, because that example, drawing out the typical components the the info that girlfriend will save in the database and avoiding the special, that differentiate one item indigenous another.

Look at the instance of one ID card in number 7.2 to check out the relationship between fields and their data.

Figure 7.2. Instance of an ID map by A. Watt.


A domain is the original sets of atom values used to model data. Through atomic value, we average that each value in the domain is indivisible as far as the relational model is concerned. For example:

The domain the Marital Status has actually a set of possibilities: Married, Single, Divorced.The domain of change has the collection of all feasible days: Mon, Tue, Wed….The domain of salary is the set of all floating-point numbers higher than 0 and less 보다 200,000.The domain of an initial Name is the set of character strings that represents surname of people.

In summary, a domain is a set of acceptable values that a tower is permitted to contain. This is based on various properties and the data kind for the column. We will talk about data varieties in an additional chapter.


Just as the content of any one record or item demands to be broken down into its ingredient bits that data for storage in the fields, the link in between them also needs to be available so that they have the right to be reconstituted into their entirety form. Records enable us to execute this. Records contain fields that room related, such as a customer or one employee. As provided earlier, a tuple is an additional term provided for record.

Records and also fields kind the basis of every databases. A simple table gives us the clearest photo of exactly how records and fields job-related together in a database storage project.

Figure 7.3. Instance of a basic table by A. Watt.

The simple table example in figure 7.3 mirrors us how fields can hold a selection of different sorts of data. This one has:

A record ID field: this is an ordinal number; the data type is one integer. A PubDate field: this is displayed as day/month/year; the data type is date. An writer field: this is shown as Initial. Surname; its data type is text. A Title field text: cost-free text have the right to be entered here.

You have the right to command the database come sift v its data and organize that in a particular way. Because that example, you can request that a choice of documents be restricted by date: 1. All prior to a given date, 2. Every after a given day or 3. All in between two provided dates. Similarly, friend can select to have actually records sorted by date. Since the field, or record, include the data is set up together a day field, the database reads the info in the day field not simply as number separated by slashes, but rather, as days that must be ordered follow to a calendar system. 


The degree is the variety of attributes in a table. In our example in number 7.3, the level is 4.

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Properties that a Table

A table has a name that is distinctive from all various other tables in the database.There space no duplicate rows; each heat is distinct.Entries in columns room atomic. The table does not save on computer repeating groups or multivalued attributes.Entries native columns space from the exact same domain based on their data form including:number (numeric, integer, float, smallint,…)character (string)datelogical (true or false)Operations combining different data species are disallowed.Each attribute has a distinctive name.The succession of columns is insignificant.The sequence of rows is insignificant.