Recall just how to situate valence electrons for every atoms (except shift and inner transition metals). Realize that metals will lose electrons to kind cations and also nonmetals gain electrons to type anions. Predict dues (using the amendment Bohr model, Z Predict fees (using the modified Bohr model) for the following elements: phosphorus, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and also aluminum. Memorize charges because that silver and zinc label your regular table through predicted charges from Bohr model.

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Earlier, we situated the valence electrons for aspects Z

Figure \(\PageIndex1\): Valentine image created from Pink Hearts frame from and also photo of bill Nye through Gage Skidmore (CC-BY=SA 2.0).


A neutral salt atom is likely to achieve an octet in the outermost shell by shedding its one valence electron.

\<\ceNa \rightarrow Na^+ + e^-\>

The cation developed in this way, Na+, is dubbed the salt ion to distinguish it indigenous the element. The outermost covering of the sodium ion is the second electron shell, which has eight electron in it. The octet rule has to be satisfied. Figure \(\PageIndex1\) is a graphical depiction of this process.

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A piece of lead, reduced through, is silvery for a short time, before the surface ar oxidizes. This was the left item of the ahead image, that was reduced with a sharp knife, utilizing a hammer. (CC through 3/0;

When command becomes a cation, it will not be visible and can end up being water soluble. If command ions go into a drink water system, one would not have the ability to detect lock visually. For years, command pipes were set up to move water to consumers in many countries including the joined States. If corrosive water to be to get in a lead-based pipe, the would produce soluble command ions. This charged varieties could be ingested unknowingly by citizens of the community. Clock the video below and note just how lead has affected the city that Flint, Michigan.

Follow-up inquiries

Why to be the drinking water resource changed from Lake Huron to Flint River? walk the Flint flow contain lead? If not, just how did the lead go into the drinking water? exactly how did the residents describe their drinking water? please realize the discoloration that the water is because of excess iron and also not lead. How deserve to lead damage the body? who does it influence the most? What might have been included to the water prior to releasing it to the pipes? Why did friend think public representative didn"t include this historicsweetsballroom.comical? What were all the contaminants this video mentioned? just how did boiling the water assist and hurt the residents of Flint, Michigan?


Some atom have nearly eight electron in your valence shell and also can gain extr valence electrons till they have actually an octet. When these atoms get electrons, they get a negative charge because they now possess more electrons 보다 protons. Negatively charged ions are called anions. Most nonmetals become anions once they do ionic compounds.

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A neutral chlorine atom has actually seven electron in its outermost shell. Just one much more electron is necessary to accomplish an octet in chlorine’s valence shell. (In table salt, this electron comes from the salt atom.)

\<\cee^- +Cl -> Cl^-\>

In this case, the ion has actually the same outermost covering as the initial atom, however now that shell has eight electron in it. When again, the octet rule has to be satisfied. The result anion, Cl−, is called the chloride ion; note the slight change in the suffix (-ide instead of -ine) to create the surname of this anion. Number \(\PageIndex2\) is a graphical depiction of this process.


In numerous cases, aspects that belong to the same team (vertical column) top top the routine table kind ions v the exact same charge due to the fact that they have the same number of valence electrons. Thus, the routine table becomes a device for remembering the charges on plenty of ions. For example, all ion made indigenous alkali metals, the very first column top top the periodic table, have a 1+ charge. Ion made native alkaline earth metals, the second group on the periodic table, have actually a 2+ charge. On the other side of the regular table, the next-to-last column, the halogens, type ions having actually a 1− charge. Number \(\PageIndex3\) shows how the charge on countless ions deserve to be predicted by the ar of an element on the periodic table.