Defining and also understanding key versus pitch class.Understanding the staff (staves) and also the cool Staff.Understanding the usage of clefs.Understanding the usage of ledger lines.

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Pitch is identified as the relative highness or lowness of sound. This is a basic definition: in music we speak that pitch as a details tone that is especially placed and notated. Pitch-class, a relatively recent term, defines a generalised or generic partnership of pitches that sound essentially identical however are be separate by a feeling of highness or lowness. Pitch-class additionally refers come tones the share the very same “pitch-space,” the is, lock sound identical, yet are “spelled” differently.


The Staff

Since at an early stage notation to be not details as to specific placement that pitch, a mechanism of parallel horizontal currently came into use in stimulate to show exact placement.Interestingly, previously systems the notation use parallel currently had remained in use. Countless used only the lines us to locate pitch, no the spaces between. This staff originated as a system of eleven parallel currently that incorporated the theoretical span of available pitches, which was the range of the male voice from base to masculine Soprano.In St. Paul’s Epistle come the Corinthians the delivers an injunction to “Let her women store silence in the Church…” This came to be the rationale because that the exclusion of females from joining in the at an early stage church. In practice, this complete system was minimal to 4 or 5 parallel present encompassing the variety of a given chant melody or voice part.

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Figure 2.1 The Guidonian Staff

Pitches were assigned details names. The shortest pitch, referred to as gamma, expanded to the highest possible pitch, ut: the contraction of these 2 terms, gamut, has gotten in the language to average “a complete variety or scope.”

The eleven-line device is visually cumbersome. In early on music particular lines were colored with various dyes, every line locating a details pitch. All various other pitches were held in relationship to these. In time, the eleven-line employee was separated right into two five-line staves. The staying line between the 2 staves was no drawn, but was taken as being “shared” by each staff.

Specific signs came into use, instead of the fancy lines. Clefs (French-“key”) offered the same purpose as fancy lines, locating specific pitches about which all various other pitches were calculated. These clefs represented basic voice ranges and their surname reflect this.

We label pitch-classes by the usage of letter-names. Various other labels are disputed in ar 2.2 "Chromatic Alteration: Accidentals". The Treble Clef (or “G-clef”), nominally indicating a high voice, locates the key “G” ~ above the second line increase on the staff.

The base Clef (or “F-clef”) locates the key “F” top top the fourth line up on the staff. From this two resolved points, all various other pitches to be calculated and also placed top top the five-line staff. Number 2.2 shows the Treble and also Bass Clefs and also pitch placement on lines and also spaces.


Treble and also Bass Clefs, The grand Staff

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Figure 2.2 Treble Clef and also Staff; bass Clef and also Staff

These 2 staves are an unified into a system dubbed The cool Staff.In notation we call complete lines of music a system. This mirrors its origins from the Guidonian staff: two five-line staves, slightly separated, the remaining invisible middle line mutual by both. The cool Staff now yields the potential for locating and also notating every pitches, from shortest to highest.

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Figure 2.3 The cool Staff

In number 2.3 pitches are detailed just external the limits of every clef top top the cool Staff. Because the 2 staves (Treble and Bass) space separated indigenous one an additional in the cool Staff, that is necessary to use icons to expand each beyond its five-line boundaries.



Ledger Lines

Short horizontal dashes are used to prolong the variety of one of two people staff, over or below. This dashes, referred to as ledger lines, offer as truncated employee lines. They might occur above or below a notehead, or they might bisect a notehead.

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Figure 2.4 Ledger Lines

The student should exercise certain care when drawing ledger lines. A common mistake of nascent music student is put the ledger heat on the wrong next of the notehead. When illustration notes watch several various other properties:

Stems extend up or down from the notehead come the next pitch-class the the same name.This exercise for notating stem length has actually its beforehand origins as a key designation, no as a durational value.Stems are attracted down native noteheads on the middle line that the staff and also above. Below the center line, tribe are drawn up.In prolonged passages across the center line the the staff, stems may be the same direction. Over there is no rule for this: that is a issue of intuitive uniformity.For trunk up: the stem is constantly on the appropriate side that the notehead. Because that stems down: the stem is constantly on the left next of the notehead.Stem placement has not constantly been uniform. As soon as studying scores of earlier music, one will readily observe the stem location in relationship to the notehead appeared to be a issue of choice, style, or convenience

Pitch placement on the Staff

Using this notational devices and practices, specific pitch placement can be shown. Keep in mind that the pitch that is one ledger line over Bass Clef is similar to the pitch the is one ledger line listed below Treble Clef (both space “Middle C”). This shared, connective pitch is reminiscent of the center line native the Guidonian staff and serves to affix the two staves.

Words That Start With Q And End With D S With Q And D, Words With Q And D

On the example provided, practice drawing Treble and also Bass Clefs.