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Engraving of john C. Calhoun, 1873Tennessee historic Society snapshot Collection

Convincing congress to declare war versus one of the mightiest army powers in the world was no straightforward task. Many Democratic-Republican members the the Twelfth Congress, which convened in November 1811, insisted that great Britain had violated America"s honor as soon as too often. Young, energetic politicians, mainly from the South and also the West and known as battle Hawks, initiated regulation designed to steer the United says towards war.

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Leaders of this group consisted of Henry Clay the Kentucky, john C. Calhoun of southern Carolina, and also Felix Grundy the Tennessee. Grundy, in particular, collection the tone because that the war Hawks through proclaiming he would certainly rather have war than more "submit" come British insults. Enemies of the war Hawks cynically blamed the war of 1812 ~ above "James Madison, Felix Grundy, and also the Devil." The rhetoric that the war Hawks, much of it published in the papers of the day, succeeded in inflaming the anti-British sentiments that had been festering due to the fact that the American Revolution. It was not by coincidence that the battle Hawks referred to as the impending dispute with good Britain the "second war for independence."

Tennessee"s battle Hawks:


John SevierLibrary picture Collection

John Sevier(1745-1815)

John Sevier led Continental forces to success at King"s Mountain throughout the American transformation and fought many battles with aboriginal Americans prior to Tennessee statehood. He served as the first governor that Tennessee and also was elected to congress in 1811. He top the military Affairs Committee the the U.S. Home of Representatives during the battle of 1812.


Felix GrundyTennessee historical Society snapshot Collection

Felix Grundy of Nashville served in the U.S. Residence of Representatives and also emerged together a nationwide leader the the war Hawks. He was well-known as the biggest defense lawyer in both Tennessee and Kentucky and he later served in the U.S. Senate and also as Attorney general of the United claims under chairman Martin van Buren.


George Washington CampbellLibrary photograph Collection

George Washington Campbell was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1811 and served as Chairman that the Committee on military Affairs. The resigned indigenous the Senate in 1814 to accept the place of Secretary of the Treasury in president James Madison"s cabinet.

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John RheaTennessee historical Society picture Collection

As a representative of Sullivan ar in the Tennessee basic Assembly, john Rhea led the committee the drafted the guiding rules of the legislature. He gone into into nationwide politics in 1802 and also was a member that the residence of Representatives till 1823. Rhea to be a champion the states" rights and an support of higher education. Amongst other beforehand institutions, he was a founder the Blount College, i beg your pardon later ended up being the college of Tennessee in Knoxville.