MCAT Physical aid » basic Chemistry » Atoms, Elements, and the periodic Table » routine Trends
Explanation:

Elements within a group have the same variety of valence electrons, but in increasing energy levels. Elements toward the bottom that a group have valence electron with greater energies in bigger orbitals. This results in a bigger radius and a weaker attractive force between the nucleus and also outer electrons. The ionization power decreases as the electron are more removed indigenous the attraction of the nucleus.

You are watching: Of the following elements, which has the highest electronegativity?

When relocating down a group, atom radius increases and ionization energy decreases.


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Example concern #3 : atomic Radius


Which of the adhering to has the biggest atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

*


*


*



Correct answer:


Explanation:

Atomic radius rises with increasing efficient nuclear charge (Z). Aspects toward the right and also toward the peak of the regular table have actually the highest possible Z values. Protons and also electrons are added in pairs together we traverse the routine table indigenous left to right. A attractive pressure is established between the positively-charged nucleus and the negatively-charged electron cloud, which rises as the number of particles grows.

When electron are included or taken far without the same happening to a proton, one imbalance of fee accumulates. When much more electrons are current than normal, the electron cloud sags farther away from the nucleus. As soon as fewer electron are present than normal, the electron cloud is drawn in an ext tightly towards the nucleus. Atoms with extra electron (a an adverse charge) will have actually larger nuclei 보다 their neutral counterparts. A chloride ion will certainly thus has a bigger atomic radius than argon, a potassium ion, or a calcium ion.


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Example concern #4 : atomic Radius


Which the the following elements has the biggest atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

F


C


N


B


O


Correct answer:

B


Explanation:

Atomic radius have the right to be figured out using the regular trends. Atom radius increases to the left that a period and down a team of the periodic table. Electronegativity, in contrast, increases to the right of a duration and up a group of the routine table. Relating the two, we have the right to see that the better the atom radius, the weaker its electronegativity since the electrons are farther far from the nucleus and also are unable to feel the attractive pressure of the proton in the nucleus.


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Example question #12 : regular Trends


When looking in ~ the periodic table that elements, what is the basic trend for boosting electronegativity?


Possible Answers:

To the left in a group and down in a period


To the best in a period and up in a group


To the left in a period and down in a group


To the appropriate in a group and up in a period


Correct answer:

To the appropriate in a duration and up in a group


Explanation:

Electronegativity increases to the right and also up once looking in ~ the routine table that elements, such the fourine is the most electronegative element. Complying with this basic trend can assist you identify the loved one electronegativity in between atoms within problems. Remember that durations run horizontally top top the table and also groups operation vertically.


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Example concern #13 : periodic Trends


Which the the following facets has the greatest electronegativity?


Possible Answers:

Magnesium


Nitrogen


Oxygen


Sulfur


Correct answer:

Oxygen


Explanation:

Remember that electronegativity increases as you method the optimal right corner of the periodic table. Since oxygen is the the furthest right and the highest possible up top top the perioidic table the end of these choices, we conclude that it has actually the greatest electronegativity.


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Example question #14 : regular Trends


Which of the given facets has the shortest electronegativity?


Possible Answers:

C


Br


Fr


F


Correct answer:

Fr


Explanation:

Electronegativity, defined as the propensity of an atom to attract an electron, increases from left come right throughout a period, and from the bottom of a team to top. The least electronegative (sometimes called most electropositive) facet is francium (Fr). This is since an electron that can be attracted to francium has the lowest ratio of attractive nuclear force to repulsive pressure by other electrons in the atom. Essentially, the distance in between the attractive atom protons is too an excellent for the attractive pressure to conquer the repulsion of the orbiting electron cloud. Francium will certainly not be stable if it gains one electron, and is much much more stable if it loser an electron and forms one octet together a positive ion.


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Example question #15 : periodic Trends


Which of the given facets has the greatest electronegativity?


Possible Answers:

Br


Fr


C


F


Correct answer:

F


Explanation:

Electronegativity, identified as the tendency of one atom to attract an electron, rises from left to right throughout a period, and the bottom the each team to the top. The many electronegative aspect is fluorine (F). This is since an electron that have the right to be attracted to fluorine has the biggest ratio the attractive nuclear force to repulsive force by other electrons. Essentially, fluorine is the most stable ion with a negative-one charge. The is small, allowing the atom protons to preserve the attractive force on the electron, and it has an octet, giving it the absolute maximum ionic stability possible.


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Example question #16 : routine Trends


Which of the following facets is the most electronegative?


Possible Answers:

Silver


Helium


Iodine


Chlorine


Correct answer:

Chlorine


Explanation:

The exactly answer is chlorine. The many electronegative elements are those in the upper ideal of the periodic table, v the exemption of the noble gases. Electronegativity explains how conveniently an element will gain an electron. The halogens (second to critical group) "want" an extra electron to complete their valence shell. Iodine and also chlorine room both halogens. Chlorine, however, has actually a smaller atomic radius, and also therefore a smaller distance between the protons and also outer electrons. Chlorine thus has a more powerful attraction for second electron because of the greater efficient nuclear attraction.


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Example question #17 : routine Trends


Which of the adhering to atoms has the shortest electronegativity?


Possible Answers:

Sodium


Chlorine


Fluorine


Potassium


Argon


Correct answer:

Argon


Explanation:

Electronegativity is the tendency for an atom to lure electrons.

We know that fluorine is the many electronegative atom ~ above the periodic table, and also that electronegativity boosts to the right throughout periods and upwards within groups. The trick answer might possible be potassium, due to the fact that it has actually a an extremely low electronegativity and also is located to the left the the table. The noble gases, however, have actually virtually no electronegativity. Remember, noble gases are defined by your valence octets in the soil state. This security generates resistance to any type of electron change, including both electronegativity and ionization energy.


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Example concern #18 : regular Trends


Electronegativity is critical concept in physics chemistry, and often supplied to help quantify the dipole moment of polar compounds. Polar link are different from those compounds that space purely nonpolar or completely ionic. An instance can be viewed by contrasting salt chloride, NaCl, with an organic molecule, R-C-OH. The former is purely ionic, and the last is polar covalent.

When comparing much more than one polar covalent molecule, we use the dipole minute value to aid us determine relative strength of polarity. Dipole moment, however, is dependent on the electronegativity of the atoms making up the bond. Electronegativity is a property inherent to the atom in question, whereas dipole minute is a residential property of the bond between them.

For example, oxygen has actually an electronegativity the 3.44, and also hydrogen that 2.20. In various other words, oxygen an ext strongly attractive electrons once in a bond with hydrogen. This leads to the O-H bond having a dipole moment.

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When all the dipole moment of polar binding in a molecule space summed, the molecular dipole moment results, together per the adhering to equation.

Dipole moment = charge * separation distance


A scientist is studying flourine. Which of the adhering to is a possible electronegativity value for flourine?