Late in 1929, Gustav Deissmann, a German theologian, was functioning in Istanbul at the Topkapi palace Library. While cataloging neck items he uncovered a gazelle-skin parchment in a stack of discarded items. This parchment had actually a map attracted on it, and also Deissmann was amazed to check out that it showed up to show the outline of southern America. The rescued the parchment, which is now known as the Piri Reis Map.

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The map the studied had been drawn and also signed in 1513 by Turkish cartographer Hagii Ahmed Muhiddin Piri, also known together Piri Reis. In addition to being a cartographer, Piri Reis served in the Turkish navy, for which he held the location of admiral. He stated that he had used 20 different maps and charts together his resource documents. Eight the them were Ptolemaic maps (maps the the known civilization according come the second century Hellenistic or Greek society), 4 were Portuguese maps, one was an Arabic map, and also one was attracted by Christopher Columbus.

This basic piece of maintained gazelle skin has been the communication of intense dispute in the world of cartography. Because that one thing, the map appears to show Antarctica almost 300 years prior to it was discovered. Not only does it display Antarctica, yet the continent is drawn together a floor mass together it would have appeared before that was spanned with its ice cream cap over 6,000 years ago.

Fragment the the Piri Reis map.

This controversy was precipitated once Professor Charles Hapgood published, in 1965, his theory about Antarctica in the book Maps the the ancient Sea Kings. Professor Hapgood, based at the university of new Hampshire, had actually studied the Piri Reis Map with his students and also found several things that they might not explain. Not only was there the issue of Antarctica without its ice cap, however they noticed the the map was attracted using the Mercator Projection, a methodology not supplied by europe cartographers till the so late 16th century.

World map of Cosa (1500). Cuba already appears together an island.

Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator devised the cylindrical map estimate in 1569. The Greeks had the capability to produce cylindrical maps making use of their knowledge of the planet as a sphere, in addition to the astrological and geometric skills to calculate latitude and longitude. The accuracy that the Mercator estimate was no absolute until the chronometer was created in 1760.

Another hypothesis, much less accepted, which attempts to correlate the American outline map of Piri Reis with seaside Venezuela and Brazil.

The usage of Mercator estimate on the Piri Reis Map could possibly be defined by his usage of Greek maps in the production of his drawing, but there was no explanation for the consists of Antarctica there is no the ice cream cap. Professor Hapgood and his college student theorized that the Piri Reis map had actually to have been based upon information older than 4,000 BCE. This is long before any kind of known advanced civilizations or any type of well-defined languages; the map introduce the theory of an ancient civilization that had actually the an abilities to navigate the world’s oceans, and also accurately graph the lands lock visited.

Hypothesis the attempts come correlate the reduced boundary that the Piri Reis map of the coast of Argentine Patagonia and also the Falkland Islands.

Professor Hapgood went on come state the the topographical representation of the area inland indigenous the coast was so precise that this ancient super-civilization had to have aerial ability in addition to their nautical and cartographic abilities. This naturally resulted in a theory of an alien world or one based on the lost city of Atlantis.

Cristóbal Colom arrived on Hispaniola.

Those doubtful of the Piri Reis theories allude out the the map is a fair depiction of the coast of southern America, with modern features of the coast and also interior shown. If this is not simply the coastline of southern America, the would average South America and Antarctica were joined at Uruguay and that Argentina is a recent addition to the soil mass. This argument infers that what is believed to it is in Antarctica top top the Piri Reis Map is the lower part of the southern American continent.

Professor Hapgood climate theorized the the earth underwent a transition in the axis about 9,500 BC, i beg your pardon displaced Antarctica and also moved it countless miles come the south, whereby it ended up being covered in ice. Proof shows the this phenomenon would have actually been impossible and also did no happen.

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The jury is still out on the question of even if it is the Piri Reis Map mirrors Antarctica or not. If you i ordered it to the idea the this part of the map is Antarctica there is no its ice cap (which has appeared on various other maps), climate you must believe that an old civilization that had progressed navigational an abilities existed and produced specific maps that the globe. If you believe that this relenten is the the lower coast of southern America, then you will probably scoff in ~ the idea of one ancient advanced civilization. Until there is pure proof to support one or the other theory, the arguments will continue.