Classicism, as a stylistic period in Western music, roughly encompassed the years ________.
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and ________ were two of the more important preclassical composers.
Johann Christian Bach
True or false? Composers in the classical period continued to use terraced dynamics in their compositions.
True or false? Classical music is basically polyphonic.
True or false? The basso continuo was the nucleus of the instrumental ensemble.
What did the typical orchestra of the classical period consist of?
Strings, woodwinds, horns, trumpets, and timpani
Political and economic power shifted to the middle class from the aristocracy and the ________.
In the classical period, serious composition was flavored by ________.
folk and popular music
The prospering middle class in the classical period sought aristocratic luxuries such as ________.
theater, music, literature
Joseph Haydn was content to spend most of his life as what?
An employee of a wealthy aristocratic family
Vienna, when Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven were active, ________.
-had population of almost 250,00 -was the fourth-largest city in europe -was the seat of the holy roman empire
Composers in the classical period took middle-class tastes into account by doing what?
-Writing dance music for public balls -Flavoring their serious compositions with folk and popular music -Writing comic operas that sometimes ridiculed the aristocracy
In the classical period, comic operas sometimes ________.
ridiculed the aristocracy
Sonata form is used frequently as the form for the ________ movement of a multimovement work.
first, final fast, slow
Which of the following is not part of a sonata form movement? Development, exposition. rondo, recapitulation
Sonata form consists of three main sections: exposition, development, and ________.
In the exposition of a sonata-form movement, what happens?
The second theme is in a new key.
At the end of a classical exposition there usually is a ________.
A feeling of harmonic tension and forward motion is created in the exposition of a sonata form movement by ________.
the conflict of tonalities between the first and second themes
How should the sonata form be viewed as?
A set of principles that serve to shape and unify contrasts of theme and key
Each successive variation in a theme with variations ________.
retains some elements of the theme
Theme-and-variations form may be schematically outlined as ________.
The ________ movement of Haydn’s Surprise Symphony is in theme-and-variations form.
The minuet-and-trio movement of a classical symphony, string quartet, or other work, is in ________ form.
The movement of a symphony that is often patterned after a dance is the ________.
The character of the minuet is best described as ________.
stately and dignified
The minuet is in ________ meter.
The scherzo differs from the minuet in that it ________.
moves more quickly
A ________ is a musical composition that is usually light in mood, and meant for evening entertainment.
When performers encounter the phrase, da capo, they ________.
return to the beginning of the piece and repeat the music
The rondo may be schematically outlined as ________.
The main theme in a rondo movement is usually ________.
lively, pleasing, and simple to remember
The sonata-rondo ________.
-may be outlined as ABA-development section-ABA -usually has a lively, pleasing, and simple to remember theme -combines rondo form with elements of sonata form
What is a symphony?
-A musical composition for orchestra, usually in four movements -An extended, ambitious composition exploiting the expanded range of tone color and dynamics of the classical orchestra -A work typically lasting between 20 and 45 minutes
The usual order of movements in a classical symphony is ________.
fast, slow, dance-related, fast
The first movement of a classical symphony is almost always fast, and in ________ form.
The last movement of a classical symphony ________.
-is usually fast, lively, and brilliant, but somewhat lighter in mood than the opening movement -is always in the tonic key of the symphony -is most often in sonata or sonata-rondo form
A classical concerto usually lasts around ________.
20 to 45 minutes
A classical concerto is a three-movement work for ________.
instrumental soloist and orchestra
The favored solo instrument in the classical concerto was the ________.
What is the essence of a classical concerto?
Interplay between a soloist and the orchestra
A classical concerto greatly relies on a soloist’s ________.
A brilliant solo section in a concerto designed to display the performer’s virtuosity is called ________.
Classical chamber music is designed ________.
for the intimate setting of a small room
The most important form of classical chamber music is the ________.
The classical string quartet is a musical composition for ________.
two violins, viola, and cello
The piano trio is a musical composition for ________.
violin, cello, and piano
Haydn was fortunate in having a long and fruitful, as well as financially stable, relationship with the noble Hungarian family of ________.
Although Haydn spent most of his time in Hungary, he often traveled to ________, where his music was performed often and greatly admired.
Haydn was a prolific composer, as demonstrated in part by his 68 string quartets and 104 ________.
Mozart was born in ________.
By the age of six, Mozart could ________.
-read music perfectly at sight -improvise fugues and write minuets -play the harpsichord and violin
Between the ages of six and fifteen, Mozart ________.
was continually on tour in England and Europe
Mozart composed his Requiem ________.
on commission from a stranger
Mozart’s Requiem was ________.
finished by one of his pupils
Which of the following is not one of Mozart’s three masterpieces of Italian opera?
Don Giovanni, in Mozart’s opera of that name, is ________.
the legendary Spanish lover
Mozart’s Symphony No. 40 ________.
featured an emotional intensity uncommon for the time
The Third Symphony of Beethoven was originally composed to commemorate the deeds of ________ as the embodiment of heroism and democratic ideals.
We have a record of Beethoven’s struggle with his musical material because he did what?
Showed his workflow in musical sketchbooks
Beethoven’s late works, composed after he was totally deaf, include ________.
-String quartets -The Ninth Symphony -Missa solemnis
What following technique did Beethoven use more extensively in his late works?
Beethoven is often credited as being ________.
the bridge between the classical and romantic periods
Beethoven’s only opera is entitled ________.
Beethoven, in comparison with earlier composers, was far more extensive and explicit in marking ________ in his scores.
-expressive indications -tempos -dynamics
Beethoven greatly expanded the ________ section of the sonata-form movement and made it more dramatic.