1. Define two variables that affect the price of diffusion.
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Molecular load affects the rate of diffusion because the enlarge the size of the molecule the longer it will require to diffuse. Membrane dimension is one more variable that affects the price of diffusion because if the membrane’s pores are little it will take molecules much longer to diffuse despite it 보다 if the pores to be larger. Also, membrane thickness is a variable due to the fact that the thinner the membrane the much faster the diffusion.
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2. Why perform you think the urea was not able to diffuse with the 20 MWCO membrane? exactly how well did the outcomes compare through your prediction?
Our forecast was the urea was not going to be able to diffuse with the 20 molecule Weight reduced Off (MWCO) membrane since urea is too huge of a molecule come diffuse through the 20 MWCO membrane’s pores aren’t big enough because that the urea to happen through.
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ours prediction to be correct, the Urea to be unable to diffuse though such a little membrane.
3. Define the results of the attempts come diffuse glucose and albumin through the 200 MWCO membrane. How well go the outcomes compare through your prediction?
We predicted the glucose and also albumin would certainly both diffuse very slowly v the 200 MWCO due to the fact that they are huge molecules. The results were; the glucose diffused with the 200 MWCO membrane in ~ a price of 0.0040 per minute. The albumin was not able to diffuse with the 200 MWCO since it is too huge of a molecule come fit v the membrane pore.
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4. Placed the complying with in stimulate from smallest to largest molecular weight: glucose, salt chloride, albumin, and urea.
Sodium Chloride, Urea, Glucose, and also Albumin.
ACTIVITY 2- Cell move Mechanisms and Permeability: Simulated assisted in Diffusion
1. Describe one way in which facilitated diffusion is the exact same as basic diffusion and one way in which the is different from basic diffusion.
Facilitated diffusion is the very same as simple diffusion in the they room both passive and go under (or with) the concentration gradient. It is various from basic diffusion in that helped with diffusion provides a carrier protein to move it throughout the membrane.
2. The bigger value derived when much more glucose carriers to be present coincides to boost in the rate of glucose transport. Define why the price increased. How well go the outcomes compare with your prediction?
The rate of glucose the was transported increased because when the concentration of glucose acquired higher, for this reason the price of diffusion walk up. Once there is a greater concentration gradient the price of diffusion increases, therefore the much more glucose carriers made it simpler for the glucose to diffuse much more quickly though the membrane. Us predicted that the rate of diffusion would be slow due to an ext molecules, but the result was the opposite, and at the moment we no know about Fick’s regulation of diffusion.
3. Define your prediction for the impact Na+ Cl- can have on glucose transport. In other words, describe why you picked the an option that you did. Exactly how well walk the results compare through your prediction?
We predicted the the glucose transport rate would increase. We predicted this since we believed that v the aid of Na+Cl- that would assist the glucose molecule diffuse v the membrane an ext quickly 보다 without it. Our results matched ours prediction. The Na+Cl- helped with the glucose though the membrane an ext quickly.
ACTIVITY 3- Cell transfer Mechanisms and also Permeability: Simulating Osmotic Pressure
1.Explain the impact that enhancing the Na+ Cl- concentration had on osmotic pressure and also why it has this effect. Exactly how well did the results compare through your prediction?
By raising the Na+Cl- concentration we adjusted the concentration gradient in the water, which raised the osmotic pressure. Our results corresponded with our prediction since we assumed that through adding more Na+Cl- would boost the osmotic pressure and increase the rate of diffusion.
2. Define one means in i beg your pardon osmosis is comparable to basic diffusion and also one way in which the is different.
Osmosis is comparable to an easy diffusion in the it is a passive diffusion and also moves down the concentration gradient. The is different since Osmosis takes place when there is a distinction in concentration gradient throughout a selectively permeable membrane.
3. Solutes are sometimes measured in milliosmoles. Explain the statement, “Water chases milliosmoles.”
“Water chases milliosmoles” is referring to the diffusion of water or osmosis. Water move though many membranes easily and moves as soon as there is a adjust in water concentration between two political parties of membrane; definition that water is chasing the concentration gradient.
4. The conditions were 9 mM albumin in the left beaker and 10 mM glucose in the appropriate beaker with the 200 MWCO membrane in place. Explain the results. Just how well go the results compare with your prediction?
The results were the the albumin was not able to pass through the membrane since it is too large of a molecule, and glucose pass though the membrane at a price of 0.0044 per minute. The osmotic press for both to be 153 L. Also with a high osmotic push albumin to be still can not to pass though the 200MWCO membrane. We predicted that with a greater osmotic press both would diffuse though the membrane, yet glucose was the one molecule that had the ability to diffuse with the membrane.
ACTIVITY 4- Cell move Mechanisms and also Permeability: Simulating Filtration
1. Define in your own words why raising the spicy size boosted the filtration rate. Use an analogy to support your statement. Just how well walk the outcomes compare with your prediction?
By enhancing the pore dimension in the membrane the filtration rate enhanced because more molecules to be able come diffuse despite the larger pres faster than smaller pores. Ours prediction was that the rate of filtration would increase due to the fact that the pores to be larger, allowing an ext molecules to happen the pores. In the kidneys, the membrane pores are bigger which permits glucose and also urea to pass though the pores.
2. I m sorry solute did not appear in the filtrate using any type of of the membranes? describe why.
Powdered charcoal did not appear in any of the filtrates despite the membranes because it is too huge of a molecule to happen though the pores of the membrane, also though the membrane pores are large; they weren’t large enough.
3. Why did raising the pressure boost the filtration rate however not the concentration of solutes? just how well did the results compare v your prediction?
The rise of push made the filtration happen much more quickly however did not change the concentration of the solutes since the press affects the price at which it diffuses through the filter, no the amountthat passes despite the membrane. Us predicted that the rate would increase.
ACTIVITY 5- Cell carry Mechanisms and Permeability: Simulating active Transport
1. Explain the significance of using 9 mM salt chloride within the cell and also 6 mM potassium chloride exterior the cell, rather of various other concentration ratios.
The significance of making use of those concentrations fairly than other ratios is since for every 3 Na+ ions that leaving the cell, 2 K+ ions enter the cell. Also, us were maybe to see the price of diffusion
2. Define why there was no salt transport also though ATP to be present. How well go the results compare with your prediction?
There is an ext Na+ exterior the cell than inside the cabinet so Na+ tends to stay inside the cell unless it requirements to be actively transported out.
3. Define why the enhancement of glucose carriers had no impact on sodium or potassium transport. How well walk the outcomes compare v your prediction?
Glucose carries had actually no effect on Na+ or K+ because glucose is transported independently.
4. Execute you think glucose is being proactively transported or transported by helped with diffusion in this experiment? define your answer.
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Glucose is being proactively transported in this experiment due to the fact that the ATP the was over there was used to transport it.