Cryptography = The process of making and also using password to for sure informationCryptanalysis = The procedure of obtaining the plaintext message from a ciphertext blog post without understanding the tricks used to do the encryption
Concealing military and also political tricks while they to be transported from place to placeJulius Caesar (50 B.C)
Cryptographic crucial = information used in conjunction v the algorithm to create the ciphertext indigenous plaintext or have the plaintext indigenous ciphertext. Can be a series of bits offered in a mathematics algorithm that the knowledge of just how to manipulate the plaintext.Formal name: Cryptovariable
3. What is a cryptographic key, and what is it used for? What is a much more formal surname for a cryptographic key?
> Substitution Cipher: One worth is substituted for another> Transposition Cipher: Block values are rearranged based on an developed pattern. AKA permutation cipher> to exclude, OR operation (XOR): 2 bits room compared; the same = 0, not the same = 1
> Hash function: math algorithms> Use: Generates a message summary/digest to confirm message identity and integrity
> the end of band: using a channel or band various other than the one carrying ciphertext> Importance: The primary difficulty of symmetric an essential encryption is getting the an essential to the receiver, and also it mus it is in done the end OF BAND. Vital exchange must either be done out OF tape or utilizing a secured an approach so that the vital is not intercepted and used to review the mystery message.

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6. What does it mean to be "out the band"? Why is it crucial to exchange secrets out of band in symmetric encryption?
In symmetric encryption, the vital that is offered to encrypt/decrypt is the same and also anyone the is in possession the the key can decrypt one encrypted transmission. In asymmetric encryption, there is an "A" an essential and a "B" key. Either vital can be provided to encrypt, yet only the opposite key can be provided to decrypt the message.
PKI provides the usage of cryptographic systems more convenient and cost-effective.Enable the defense of info assets by make verifiable digital certificates readily easily accessible to company applicationsGreatest value when one an essential serves together a private vital and the various other serves as a public key
8. Just how does public-key Infrastructure include value come an company seeking to usage cryptography to protect information assets?
> Certificate authority: 3rd party that manages users" digital certificate / issues, manages, authenticates signs, and also revokes users" digital signatures> registration authority: 3rd party the operates under the trusted teamwork of the certificate authority and handles day-to-day certification functions / verifying registration details , generating end-user keys, revoking certificates, and also validating user certificates> Certificate directories: main locations because that certificate storage that carry out a solitary access suggest for management and distribution> management protocols: Organize and manage communications among CAs, RAs, and end individuals / functions and also procedures for setting up brand-new users, issuing keys, to update keys, revoking keys, and enabling transfer that certificates and status> Policies and procedures: assist an organization in the application and also management of certificates / legitimate liabilities and also limitations
> Digital signatures are encrypted message components that deserve to be mathematically proven together authentic> Digital certificates are public-key container papers that allow PKI system components and also end users to validate a public an essential and determine its owner.> Difference: A digital certificate is a wrapper for a crucial value. A digital signature is a mix of a article digest and other information used to assure nonrepudiation.
The Diffie-Hellman exchange provides session keys, i m sorry protects data from exposure to 3rd parties, i m sorry is sometimes a problem when keys are exchanged the end of band.
11. What an important issue in symmetric and asymmetric encryption is resolved by making use of a hybrid technique like Diffie-Hellman?
> Steganography is the procedure of hiding messages.> offered to hide a post in the digital encoding of a picture/graphic so it"s impossible to detect that the surprise message also exists / protects confidentiality of details in transit. Steganography is a procedure used come hide messages in ~ digital encoding of pictures and graphics. It is a problem for defense professionals due to the fact that hidden messages can contain sensitive information that demands to be protected.
> certain HTTP (S-HTTP): prolonged version that HTTP that provides for the encryption of defended web pages sent via the internet between a customer and server> certain Sockets class (SSL): A security protocol occurred by Netscape to usage public an essential encryption to secure a channel end the internet.> Secure electronic Tansactions (SET): A protocol developed by credit transaction card carriers to protect against electronic payment fraud.
> S/MIME (Secure Multipurpose net Mail Extensions): defense protocol the builds ~ above the encoding layout of the multipurpose net mail extensions protocol and also uses digital signatures based upon public vital cryptosystems to secure email.> PEM (Privacy-Enhanced Mail): A typical proposed by the internet design task force that provides 3des symmetric vital encryption and also RSA for an essential exchanges and digital signatures> PGP (Pretty an excellent Privacy): Hybrid cryptosystem that combines few of the best easily accessible cryptographic algorithms.

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> Modes: Transport and Tunnel> Transport: just packet"s IP data is encrypted, no the IP headers; this permits intermediate nodes to read resource and location addresses. > Tunnel: whole IP packet is encrypted and also inserted as the payload in one more IP packet. Solution at the end of the tunnel have to act as proxies come send and also receive the encrypted packets and also transmit the packets to their destination
> provides pre-identified terms: dictionary attack> all possible an essential combinations: Brute pressure attack(?)
16. Which kind of strike on cryptosystems requires using a collection of pre-identified terms? Which type of strike involves sequential guessing of all possible key combinations?
> key size: 128+> Why: The existing "gold standard" is to ensure the all computing an equipment are capable of AES 256 little encryption. The much more bits, the better. 128 gives you 19 sextillion years, so...
17. If girlfriend were setup up an encryption-based network, what vital size would you choose and why?
> vital size: WPA used 128-bit keys, and also NextGen Wireless Protocols such as RNS provides up come 256
18. What is the typical vital size of a solid encryption system used top top the web today?
> Standard: progressed Encyption conventional (AES): existing federal traditional for the encryption that data, as mentioned by NIST. Based upon Rijndael algorithm, arisen by VINCENT RIJMEN one JOAN DAEMEN- have to be unclassified, publicly disclosed, and available royalty-free worldwide- implements Rijndael Block Cipher through variable block length and key length that 128, 192, 256 bits
> SET, SSL, S-HTTP, Secure shell (SSH-2), and also IP defense (IPSec)> set (Secure digital Transactions): --Developed by MasterCard and also Visa in 1997 to protect versus electronic payment fraud--Uses DES come enrcypt card details transfers and RSA for key exchange--Internet-based and also in-store swipes> SSL (Secure Sockets Layer): --Developed by Netscape to usage a public-key encryption come secure a channel over the Internet--Most popular browsers usage it--Provides 2 protocols in TCP framework: SSL document Protocol and also Standard HTTP> S-HTTP (Secure HTTP):--Extended variation of HTTP--Provides for encryption of defended Web pages sent via web between client and server--Application the SSL over HTTP, protected and secure virtual connection--Designed for sending out indiv messages end the Internet, therefore session have to be established--Provides confidentiality, authentication, and also data integrity> IPSec (IP Security):--PRIMARY and also DOMINANT cryptographic authentication and also encryption product --Created through IETF"s IP Protocol protection Working Group--Made because that TCP/IP household of protocol standards--Provides application assistance for all customers in TCP/IP, including VPNs--Protect data integiryt, user confidentiality, and authenticity in ~ IP level--Defined in inquiry for comment (RFC) 1825, 1826, 1827--Widely provided to develop VPNs--Open framework--Includes IP Sec protocol itself--Used come secure comms throughout IP-based networks such as LANs, WANs, and Internet

Introduction to Algorithms3rd EditionCharles E. Leiserson, Clifford Stein, Ronald L. Rivest, cutting board H. Cormen



Operating device Concepts9th EditionAbraham Silberschatz, Greg Gagne, Peter B. Galvin
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