The first page to Edward Bellamy"s "Looking Backward" in which world from the year 2,000 look ago to 1887

The single greatest element that fueled the gradual movement in America to be urbanization. For years, educated, middle-class ladies had begun the work of reform in the nation"s cities.

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Jane Addams to be a progressive before the movement had such a name. The settlement residence movement embodied the very ideals the progressivism. Temperance was a progressive movement in its approach of improving family members life. "Social gospel" preachers had already begun to address the demands of city dwellers.

Progressive Writing

Urban intellectuals had ready stirred consciences through their controversial treatises. Henry George attracted many followers by blaming inequalities in wealth on soil ownership. In his 1879 work, Progress and also Poverty, he suggested that revenues made native land sales be taxation at a price of 100 percent.

Edward Bellamy peered right into the future in his 1888 novel, feather Backward. The hero that the story wakes increase in the year 2000 and looks earlier to check out that all the hardships the the Gilded period have withered away thanks to one activist, utopian socialist government.

In The concept of the recreation Class (1899), Thorstein Veblen quote countless instances of "conspicuous consumption." Wealthy families spent their wide range on obtaining European functions of art or fountains the flowed v champagne. Surely, the argued, those resources might be placed to much better use.

Women"s Suffrage Poster

Pragmatic Solutions

Underlying this brand-new era the reform was a fundamental shift in philosophy away from society Darwinism. Why expropriate hardship and also suffering as merely the result of herbal selection? people can and also have adjusted their physical atmospheres to suit their purposes. Individuals need no accept injustices together the "law that nature" if they deserve to think that a better way.

Philosopher william James dubbed this new method of thinking, "pragmatism." His followers came to believe that one activist government might be the certified dealer of the public to go after the betterment of society ills.

The many prolific disciple of James was man Dewey. Dewey used pragmatic reasoning to education. Fairly than having students memorize truth or formulas, Dewey proposed "learning by doing." The progressive education and learning movement started by Dewey conquered educational conflict the entire 20th century.

The Populist Influence

The Populist movement likewise influenced progressivism. If rejecting the call for complimentary silver, the progressives adopted the political reforms of an enig ballot, initiative, referendum, and also recall. Most of this reforms were on the state level. Under the governorship of Robert LaFollette, Wisconsin came to be a activities for many of these political reforms.

The Populist ideas of an income tax and direct election of senators came to be the Sixteenth and also Seventeenth Amendments come the United claims Constitution under steady direction.

Reforms went more by trying to source out city corruption through introducing new models the city government. The city commission and also the city manager systems removed necessary decision making native politicians and also placed it in the hands of expert technicians. The job movement contributed the calls because that workers" compensation and also child job regulation.

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Progressivism come from so countless sources indigenous every region of America. The national frame of mind to be fixed. Reform would occur. The was only a matter of how much and what type.