You are watching: What does pro mean in biology
When both pro- and pre- are supplied to mean "earlier to/prior to/before", walk pro- constantly come first? Is this difference used outside organic vocabulary? walk this come from some subtle distinction in a classical language?* of course, pro-B cell come ~ pre-pro-B cells. And also pro-microRNAs come from pri-microRNAs, but "pri" is one abbrevation because that "primary".
latin prefixes biologic
improve this concern
asked may 11 "16 in ~ 1:25
Michael HoffmanMichael Hoffman
30111 gold badge33 silver- badges88 bronze title
add a comment |
1 price 1
active earliest Votes
This is a very interesting question. Unfortunately, I have not to be able to discover enough information to give an ext than a partial answer. But I expect it will be of some use.
According to the Oxford historicsweetsballroom.com thesaurus (OED), the prefix "pro-," meaning "before," comes mainly from the Greek prefix προ-. it is cognate v the Latin preposition pro an interpretation "for, before, in former of," and with the historicsweetsballroom.com native fore. an ext than 60 words v this prefix were embraced into Latin in antiquity, consisting of prologus "prologue" and also propheta "prophet," for this reason Latin has been critical intermediate resource of words with this prefix.
The OED shows that the Latin prefix prae-, which synchronizes to modern-day historicsweetsballroom.com pre-, was mostly used in classical times with verbs and also verbal derivatives, or to intensify the definition of adjectives. There are additionally some cases where that modifies the an interpretation of nouns and also adjectives, yet the use prior to a noun to suggest an earlier version of that noun reportedly only came to be common in post-Classical Latin and later languages.
The preposition construction, in i m sorry pre- governs the second element, which to be so rare in Latin, has actually in historicsweetsballroom.com received huge extension (as also in French), pre- being desired to ante- as the the contrary of post- in brand-new formations, and also often substituted because that it, as in pre-Christian, prehistoric, pre-Darwinian, pre-reformation instead of ante-Christian, ante-historic, ante-Darwinian, ante-reformation. <...> the may also be combined with noun in bespeak to kind compound noun directly, as precancer n., preclimax n., <...> premyelocyte n., prepuberty n., etc. Compounds of this form are of fairly recent appearance.
So the difference you cite does not seem come date earlier to timeless languages.
See more: How To Make Keyboard Cat In Little Alchemy ? How Do You Make A Keyboard Cat On Little Alchemy
It does remind me of the usage of hyper- in some contexts as a much more extreme variation of super- (discussed in the answers to this question: i beg your pardon is greater — "hyper-", "ultra-" or "super-"?). In both cases, it seems favor the much more common ax (super- or pre-) is provided for the less excessive meaning. I have not found any type of cases where pre- and also pro- are differentiated this way outside of biology.
I uncovered one paper about biology which seems to explain a slightly various naming system using "pre-pre-" rather of "pro-":
So-called B-ALL, because that example, is based on progenitor cell of B-lymphocytes, if T-ALL forms from precursors that T-lymphocytes. A degeneracy in the early advancement stages is qualified by the prefix "pre". This outcomes in the following ALL-subtypes:Pre-pre-B-ALL (now typically referred to together pro-B-ALL) typical ALL Pre-B-ALL (mature) B-ALL Pro- and also Pre-T-ALL intermediary (cortical) T-ALL T-ALL
(Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) - short Information)