At convergent boundaries, tectonic bowl collide through each other. The occasions that take place at these borders are attached to the types of plates — oceanic or continent — that room interacting.

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Subduction Zones and Volcanoes

At part convergent boundaries, one oceanic plate collides v a continent plate. Oceanic crust often tends to it is in denser and thinner 보다 continental crust, therefore the denser oceanic crust it s okay bent and pulled under, or subducted, in ~ the lighter and also thicker continent crust. This forms what is referred to as a subduction zone. As the oceanic tardy sinks, a deep oceanic trench, or valley, is created at the leaf of the continent. The crust proceeds to be compelled deeper right into the earth, whereby high heat and also pressure reason trapped water and also other gasses to be released from it. This, in turn, provides the base of the crust melt, forming magma


The magma created at a subduction ar rises up towards the earth"s surface and builds increase in magma chambers, whereby it feeds and creates volcanoes on the overriding plate. As soon as this magma finds its way to the surface through a vent in the crust, the volcano erupts, expelling lava and also ash. An example of this is the band of active volcanoes the encircle the Pacific Ocean, often referred to as the Ring that Fire.

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Illustration illustrating how island arcs space formed.

A subduction region is likewise generated once two oceanic bowl collide — the older plate is forced under the younger one — and it leader to the development of chains of volcanic islands known as island arcs. Examples include the Mariana islands in the western Pacific Ocean and also the Aleutian Islands, turn off the coastline of Alaska.

Since the collision and subduction of bowl is not a smooth process, large, an effective earthquakes are one more phenomenon that result from this form of interaction. Earthquakes produced in a subduction ar can additionally give increase to tsunamis. A tsunami is a vast ocean wave resulted in by a sudden transition on the s floor, such as an undersea earthquake. If the wave reaches land, the can cause incredible destruction, like the asian Tsunami, which killed an ext than 200,000 people in 11 countries across the Indian Ocean region in December 2004.

Collision Zones and Mountains

What happens once two continental plates collide? due to the fact that the rock consisting of continental key is usually lighter and also less thick than oceanic rock, that is also light to get pulled under the earth and also turned right into magma. Instead, a collision between two continental plates crunches and also folds the absent at the boundary, lifting the up and also leading to the development of mountains and mountain ranges.


An instance of this mountain-building procedure is the Himalayan selection in southern Asia. Include the highest possible mountain peaks in the world and traversing the modern-day nations of India, Pakistan, China (Tibet), Bhutan, and Nepal, the Himalayas were formed by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian Plates. This procedure began ~ the breakup that Pangaea, once India ended up being an island continent and began traveling northward toward Asia. The island that India slammed into Asia about 40 to 50 million years earlier near modern Tibet, crushing and also folding the bowl to form the Himalayan hill range. Its ideal known peaks, mount Everest and also K2, are amongst several that measure over 8,000 meters (26,000 feet) high at their summits. Due to the fact that the Indian key is proceeding in that northward movement into Asia, the Himalayas continue to grow greater each year by tiny amounts (5 come 20 mm or 1 customs per year).

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Image credits: Animations and illustration of oceanic-oceanic key collision adapted from drawings by jane Russell indigenous Jacquelyne Kious and Robert Tilling, This Dynamic Earth, USGS, pp. 37 and also 40.
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