• Categorized under Science | Difference Between Strong and Weak Acid
Acids are chemical substances that donate hydrogen ions or protons when mixed in solutions. The number of protons given off by a particular acid actually determines the strength of the acid – whether it is a strong acid or a weak acid. In order to understand the strength of the acids, one need to compare their tendency to donate protons to the similar base (mostly water). The strength is denoted by a number called pKA.
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What is a Strong acid?
An acid is said to be strong if it dissociates or ionizes completely in a solution. That means, it is able to give the largest number of H+ ions or protons when mixed in a solution. These ions are the charged particles. Since a strong acid donates a greater number of ions as it breaks down, or ionizes, that means a strong acid is a conductor of electricity.
When an acid mixes in H2O, a proton (H+ ion) is carried to a H2O molecule to generate a H3O+ (Hydroxonium ion) and a – ion based on which acid is involved to begin with.
In a general scenario,
Such chemical reactions can be revered, but in few cases, the acid is gives away H+ ion quite easily and the reaction looks like being one-way. And the acid is complete dissociated.
For e.g., when hydrogen chloride dissolves in H2O to make HCl, so little of the reverse reaction happens that we can write:
At one time, hundred percent virtual reaction will take place wherein hydrogen chloride will show reaction with H3O+ (Hydroxonium ion) and Cl– ions. Here, the strong acid is Hydrogen Chloride.
What is a Weak acid?
An acid is said to be weak if it ionizes partially or incompletely, giving off only some of its hydrogen atoms into the solution. Hence, it is less capable as compared to a strong acid in giving off protons. Weak acids have higher pKa than strong acids.
Ethanoic acid is a good example of a weak acid. It shows reaction with H2O for producing H3O+ (Hydroxonium ions) and CH3COOH (ethanoate ions), but the reverse reaction shows more success than the forward one. The molecules react quite easily to ameliorate the acid and the H2O.
At any one time, only about one percent of the CH3COOH acid molecules show conversion into ions. Whatever is left is the simple acetic acid (systematically called ethanoic acid) molecules.
Difference between Strong acid and Weak acid
A strong acid is an acid that ionizes completely in an aqueous solution. A strong acid will always loose a proton (A H+) when dissolved in H2O. In other words, a strong acid is always on its toes and quite efficient in giving off protons.
A weak acid is one that ionizes partially in a solution. It gives off only few of its hydrogen atoms in to the solution. Hence it is less capable than a strong acid.
Strong acids will always show strong conductivity. Strong acids usually pass more current as compared to the weak acids for the same voltage and concentration.
Weak acids have a low conductivity. They are poor conductors and show a low value for current passing
Rate of reaction
Rate of reaction is faster in the strong acids
Rate of reaction is slower in weak acids
Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Nitric acid (HNO3), Perchloric acid (HClO4), Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), Hydroiodic acid (HI), Hydrobromic acid (HBr), Chloric acid (HClO3).
Sulfurous acid (H2SO3), Acetic acid (CH3COOH), Phosphoric acid (H3PO4), Benzoic acid (C6H5COOH), Hydrofluoric acid (HF), Formic acid (HCOOH), Nitrous acid (HNO2).
In a strong acid, the pH is lower than, generally 3. Strong acids possess a very high concentration of H+ ions (an acid having a pH of 3 has 0.001 moles per liter of Hydrogen ions).
A weak acid has a pH ranging between 3-7.
Value of pKa
In a strong acid, the value of pKa is quite low.
In a weak acid, the value of pKa is quite high.
See more: What Is 1 1/3 Plus 1 1/3 Cup Plus 1/3 Cup? Fraction Calculator
HCl(g) + H2O(l) ≈ H3O+(aq) + Cl−(aq)
CH3COOH(l) + H2O(l) ≈ H3O+(aq) + CH3COO−(aq)
Summary of Strong acid Vs. Weak acid
The points of difference between Strong and Weak Acids have been summarized below: Comparison chart
Dr Amita Fotedar is an experienced Research Consultant with a demonstrated history of working in elite Research Institutes like United Nations Development Programme, Istanbul, Turkey, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India and International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Srilanka. Skilled in Biological Sciences, Environmental Health, Natural Resources, Water Resource Management, and Renewable Energy, she has a PhD in Environmental Sciences from the University of Jammu, India. Apart from her PhD, she has a Post Graduate Diploma in International Studies from International Pacific University, New Zealand Campus, and has also been rewarded a certification in Climate Studies from Harvard University (EdX). She is a recipient of Academic Excellence Award from International Pacific University, New Zealand campus. At present she is pursuing MicroMasters in Sustainable Energy from The University of Queensland, Australia. She is a Co- founder and Research Advisor for a New Zealand based Sustainability and Environmental Services Entity and is also a member of the Environmental Peacebuilding Association at SDG Academy, offering mentorship (a collaborative network of academic and research institutions under the auspices of UN Secretary-General). She has around 35 national and international publications to her credit.