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Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory
oIn Valance Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSPER) theory, the electrons that surround the central atom of molecule are arranged in such a way that they minimize the electron-electron repulsions.
oThis arrangement of electrons can be used to predict the geometrical shape of polyatomic molecules by calculating the bond pair and lone pair of electrons surrounding the central atom/ions.
The molecular shape of various molecules having specific number of lone pair of electrons and bonding pair of electrons are given below:
Number of bonding groups on central atom | Number of lone pairs on central atom | Molecular notation | Electron-pair geometry | Molecular geometry |
2 | 0 | linear | Linear | |
3 | 0 | trigonal planar | trigonal planar | |
2 | 1 | trigonal planar | bent | |
4 | 0 | tetrahedral | tetrahedral | |
5 | 0 | trigonal bipyramidal | trigonal bipyramidal | |
3 | 2 | trigonal bipyramidal | T-shape | |
4 | 1 | trigonal bipyramidal | seesaw | |
4 | 2 | octahedral | square planar |
The geometrical shape of molecules which can be identified by calculating the number of bond pair and lone pair of electrons and steps involved in the calculation is given below:
Step.1: Write the electron dot formula from the given molecular formula.
Step.2: Determine the total number of bonding pair electrons and lone pair of electrons that present around the central atom.
Step.3: Determine the arrangement of these electron pairs around the central atom to find the electron geometry.
(b)
The electron dot structure of
is given below:The total number of bond pair of electrons = 2.
The total number of lone pair of electrons = 2.
Therefore, the electron geometry of molecule is “tetrahedral.”
(c)
The electron dot structure of
is given below:The total number of bond pair of electrons = 3.
The total number of lone pair of electrons = 2.
Therefore, the electron geometry of molecule is “trigonal bipyramidal.”
(d)
The electron dot structure of
is given below:The total number of bond pair of electrons = 3.
The total number of lone pair of electrons = 0.
Therefore, the electron geometry of molecule is “trigonal planar.”
Ans: Part bThe electron geometry of
is given below: Part cThe electron geometry of
is given below: Part dThe electron geometry of
is given below:00
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