Paramecium, showing contractile vacuole and ciliary motion. Paramecium resides in new water. The overabundance water it takes in via osmosis is collected into 2 contractile vacuoles, one at every end, i m sorry swell and also expel water v an opened in the cell membrane. The sweeping motion of the hair-like cilia helps the single-celled biology move. Differential interference contrast, 350x-1000x. Tenth Prize, 2013 Olympus BioScapes Digital Imaging Competition®. credit: Ralph Grimm, Jimboomba Queensland, Australia.)
Paramecia space single-celled protists that room naturally found in aquatic habitats. They are commonly oblong or slipper-shaped and are spanned with brief hairy structures called cilia. Specific paramecia are also easily cultured in labs and serve as advantageous model organisms.

You are watching: What is the food source for the paramecium?



Paramecia cells room characteristically elongated. Historically, based on cell shape, these organisms were divided into two groups: aurelia and bursaria, according to the "The biological of Paramecium, second Ed." (Springer, 1986). The aurelia morphological form is oblong, or "cigar" shaped, through a somewhat tapered posterior end. Bursaria, ~ above the various other hand, represents cells that room "slipper" shaped. They often tend to be shorter, and also their posterior finish is rounded.

Paramecia are a component of a team of organisms well-known as ciliates. Together the surname suggests, your bodies room covered in cilia, or quick hairy protrusions. Cilia are necessary for movement of paramecia. As these structures whip ago and forth in an aquatic environment, they propel the organism v its surroundings. Paramecia deserve to move front at rates up come 2 millimeters per second, as José de Ondarza, an associate professor in the department of biological Sciences at SUNY Plattsburgh notes on his research website. Occasionally the organism will carry out "avoidance reactions" by reversing the direction in i beg your pardon the cilia beat. This outcomes in stopping, rotate or turning, after which suggest the paramecium resumes swim forward. If lot of avoidance reactions follow one another, it is feasible for a paramecium to swim backward, though no as smoothly together swimming forward.

Cell structure

Paramecia space eukaryotes. In contrast to prokaryotic organisms, such together bacteria and archaea, eukaryotes have well-organized cells. The defining features of eukaryotic cells space the existence of dedicated membrane-bound moving machinery referred to as organelles and the nucleus, which is a compartment that holds DNA. Paramecia have plenty of organelles characteristics of every eukaryotes, such as the energy-generating mitochondria. However, the organism likewise contains some distinctive organelles.

Under an exterior covering referred to as the pellicle is a class of rather firm cytoplasm dubbed the ectoplasm. This region consists the spindle-shaped organelles recognized as trichocysts. Once they discharge their contents, they become long, thin and also spiky, according to "Biology the Paramecium." The exact role of trichocysts is not rather clear, despite a well-known theory is that they are vital for defense against predators. This has actually been tested over the years and has held true for certain Paramecium species against certain predators. For example, a 2013 write-up published in the newspaper Zoological Science uncovered that trichocysts of Paramecium tetraurelia were effective versus two that the three predators the were tested: the Cephalodella species that rotifers and also the Eucypris species of arthropods.

Below the ectoplasm lies a much more fluid form of cytoplasm: the endoplasm. This an ar contains the bulk of cabinet components and organelles, consisting of vacuoles. These room membrane-enclosed pockets in ~ a cell. Follow to a 2013 record published in the journal Bioarchitecture, the surname "vacuole" defines the reality that they appear transparent, and also empty. In actuality, these organelles tend to be filled with fluid and also other materials. Secret take on specific functions v a paramecium cell. Food vacuoles encapsulate food consumed by the paramecium. They climate fuse with organelles dubbed lysosomes, whose enzymes break apart food molecules and conduct a type of digestion. Contractile vacuoles are responsible for osmoregulation, or the discharge of overfill water indigenous the cell, follow to the writer of "Advanced Biology, 1st Ed." (Nelson, 2000). Depending upon the species, water is fed into the contractile vacuoles via canals, or by smaller sized water-carrying vacuoles. When the contractile vacuole collapses, this overabundance water pipeline the paramecium body v a sharp in the pellicle ("Biology the Paramecium").

Perhaps the many unusual characteristics of paramecia is your nuclei. "Paramecium in addition to the various other ciliates have this rather unique feature," claimed James Forney, a professor the biochemistry in ~ Purdue University. "They have two types of nuclei, which differ in their shape, your content and also function."

The two varieties of nuclei space the micronucleus and macronucleus. The micronucleus is diploid; that is, it contains two copies of each paramecium chromosome. Forney notes that the micronucleus contains every one of the DNA that is current in the organism. "It"s the DNA the is passed from one generation to the another during sex-related reproduction," the said. Top top the other hand, the macronucleus contains a subset the DNA indigenous the micronucleus, follow to Forney. "It is the transcriptionally active nucleus," that added. "So it"s the nucleus that is spelling to do mRNAs and proteins from those mRNAs." The macronucleus is polyploid, or includes multiple duplicates of every chromosome, sometimes up come 800 copies.

All Paramecium species have actually one macronucleus, according to Forney. However the number of micronuclei have the right to vary by species. He offers the instance of the Paramecium aurelia types complex, which have actually two micronuclei and also Paramecium multimicronucleatum, which have actually several.

Why the presence of two distinct nuclei? One evolutionary reason is the it is a mechanism whereby paramecia and also other ciliates deserve to stave off genetic intruders: piece of DNA the embed themselves into the genome. "In the instance of ciliates, there"s a mechanism in which, if a item of DNA is in the micronucleus yet it"s not in the macronucleus, it will certainly be gotten rid of from the following macronucleus that is made," Forney explained. "In various other words, if something international got right into the micronuclear genome, then once the next macronucleus is made, it would certainly removed and not consisted of in the expressed variation of the genome." Forney notes the this has actually been defined by part as a primitive DNA immune system; that is, surveying the genome and trying to keep out invading elements.


Diagram the a paramecium. (Image credit: Designua Shutterstock


Paramecia have the right to reproduce either asexually or sexually, depending upon their environmental conditions. Asexual reproduction takes location when ample nutrients room available, while sexual reproduction takes place under conditions of starvation. In addition, paramecia can also undergo "autogamy" or self-fertilization under conditions of an extensive starvation, according to de Ondarza’s research website.

Asexual reproduction (binary fission)

During binary fission, one paramecium cabinet divides into two genetically similar offspring, or daughter cells. According to Forney, the micronucleus experience mitosis, however the macronucleus divides an additional way, referred to as an amitotic, or non-mitotic, mechanism. "It is not based upon mitosis yet it divides between the two cells and somehow is able to keep around the same number of copies of every gene," the said.

Sexual reproduction (conjugation)

Conjugation amongst paramecia is akin come mating. Forney stated that there space two mating varieties for paramecia, i m sorry are referred to as odd and even. This shows the truth that the mating varieties for miscellaneous Paramecium species are denoted by either an strange or even number. Because that example, follow to Forney, Paramecium tetraurelia have actually mating types 7 and also 8. "Odd will certainly mate with the even mating type but you cannot mate if you are the same mating type," that said. Moreover, just cells within a solitary Paramecium species deserve to mate through one another.

The process is quickly distinguishable under activities conditions. "The cell stick together. They have the right to actually type rather dramatic clumps that cells as soon as they are originally mixed," Forney said. "Then those slowly pair off into individual bag in culture."

During sex-related reproduction, the micronuclei of each paramecium experience meiosis, ultimately halving the hereditary content to produce a haploid nucleus. These are exchanged in between the two associated mates. The haploid nuclei from every mate fuse to create a new, genetically varied, micronucleus. In turn, the new micronucleus replicates to provide rise come a brand-new macronucleus, follow to de Ondarza’s research website.

Autogamy (self-fertilization)

"Autogamy is basically the same thing as conjugation, but it is only happening through a single cell," Forney said. During this process, the micronucleus replicates multiple times. One of these new micronuclei experience rearrangement that their genetic content. Part DNA is fragmented and some DNA sequences, recognized as "Internal got rid of Sequences," room removed, follow to de Ondarza’s research study website.


The basic term "paramecium" refers to a single organism in ~ the genus Paramecium. A genus, follow to Oregon State University, describes a very closely related team of organisms that share similar characteristics. The genus Paramecium is further divided in teams known together subgenera, which each contain one or more species.

The methods of classifying paramecia have readjusted over the years. The earliest techniques were through visual observation and also were based on morphology, at some point describing every paramecia together either aurelia or bursaria. More recently, category has linked morphological observation with molecular and also genetic information. This has actually helped to develop a family members tree, well-known as a phylogenetic tree, the represents evolution relationships. This change from morphology to molecule phylogenetics has influenced the expertise of relationships within theParamecium genus and varieties diversity, follow to Michaela Strüder-Kypke, manager of progressed light microscopy at the Molecular and also Cellular Imaging basic at the college of Guelph in Ontario, Canada. She said that together of 2012, over there are five subgenera normally supported by molecular phylogeny to differing degrees: Chloroparamecium, Helianter, Cypriostomum, Viridoparamecium and also Paramecium.

Strüder-Kypke claimed that a an approach of identifying varieties known together "DNA barcoding" has been offered for Paramecium. "Identification of species based top top the sequence of a details fragment of DNA has been described as DNA barcoding," she explained. "Just favor a barcode in the stores identifies each product, a short DNA sequence the is saturated divergent, have the right to identify each species." One such barcode, the cox1 gene, has been "extensively used for the genus Paramecium," Strüder-Kypke said.

There are right now 19 recognized morphospecies that Paramecium, follow to Strüder-Kypke. She defined that a morphospecies is a types defined just by distinctive morphological characteristics, no by genetics or the capacity to produce fertile offspring. Of this, 15 sibling species type what is recognized as the Paramecium aurelia species complex. Sibling species, follow to Strüder-Kypke, look at alike v no morphologically separating characteristics, however they differ in biochemical and genetic aspects and cannot conjugate v one another. The Paramecium aurelia complex counts together a single morphospecies.

New insights right into Paramecium taxonomy and the visibility of brand-new species proceed to be defined even today. The 19th morphospecies,Paramecium buetschlii, was found in a freshwater swimming pool in Norway and described in a 2015 research study paper, released in the newspaper Organisms Diversity & Evolution. The same document also described three new "cryptic species" found in Germany, Hungary and also Brazil. The authors explain that they to be treated together cryptic species because lock were an overwhelming to distinguish morphologically from other members the theParamecium genus. However, taxonomic mite in their DNA indicate that they room a different species.

See more: How Many Ounces In A Pitcher Of Water ? How Many Ounces Are In A Standard Pitcher Of Beer

"The idea is that, if we look in unexplained habitats or "under sampled" areas of this world, we might still find brand-new species," Strüder-Kypke told