Germicide refers to chemicals that can kill or inhibit the bacteria or fungi. Germicide can kill or inhibit the growth and proliferation of pathogens at both outside the plant or inside the plants via the toxicity of the agents. Some kinds of germicides are non-toxic to the fungi, but can interfere with the process of pathogenic process of fungus or affect the interaction of pathogen – host, improving the plant defenses.

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In the end of 18th century to the 1850s, people strengthened the research on the organic germicide in order to seek the substitutes of copper and mercury preparations. The event of the greatest impact should be in 1934 when W. H. Tisdale reported the bactericidal effect of dithiocarbamic acid derivatives. This discovery opened up a new era of organic compounds as germicide. Following the discovery of bactericidal activity of ziram, ferbam, and thiram, in 1935, DuPont had further found the germicidal activity of sodium dithane in the dithane class. In 1943, people had put it into production. After 1960s, dithiocarbamate salt germicide had gradually developed into a class of germicide of the world"s largest production.

To date, there are nearly 300 kinds of organic germicides that have been commercialized. Substituted benzene type contains PCNB, hexachlorobenzene, chlorothalonil and dozens of other varieties. Trichloromethylthio type germicide mainly contains folpet and captan. After 1950s, there are a lot of varieties having achieved practical application, including organic mercury and quinones, organic tin, organic phosphorus and agricultural antibiotics. In 1969 and 1970, the ethyl thiophanate and methyl thiophanate developed by Nippon Soda Company (Japan) are two best varieties with the latter one especially obtaining wide applications on fruit trees and vegetables. In the 1960s, Japan, during the development of germicide against rice sheath blight, had successfully launched organic arsenic germicides such as asomate and neoasozin. It is particularly worth mentioning that there have been a number of excellent germicides in the heterocyclic fungicides.

The breakthrough of systemic germicide was actually started from the discovery of the systemic germicidal effect of carboxin made by the Uniroyal Company in 1960s. In 1966, carboxin and oxycarboxin had been simultaneously subject to commercialization. Later, it had successively appeared of benomyl, dodecyl morpholine, thiophanate-methyl, and triforine, etc. In 1970s, triazole-class systemic germicide with triadimefon as the representative had attracted broad attention.

However, the above germicides have very poor efficacy in treating many kinds of important diseases caused by oomycete. In 1977, Ciba-Geigy Company (Switzerland) had successfully developed systemic germicide, metalaxyl with excellent efficacy in prevention of disease caused by oomycete. Metalaxyl is characterized by high efficacy, small usage amount and having bidirectional conduction properties, making the systemic germicide enter into a new stage of development. China is one of the earliest countries that had applied the elements and inorganic agents for control of plant diseases. This had been documented (see the history of pesticide development) in a variety of well-known ancient writings. In 1950s, the most widely used germicides are still inorganic copper and mercury preparations.

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Substituted benzene such as PCNB has also been applied. In 1960s dithiocarbamate salts and organic arsenic preparations had been widely used. In 1970s, it had been developed of carbendazim, and had developed into one of the germicide varieties with the largest production amount in China. Meanwhile, China"s agricultural antibiotic, Jinggangmycin had also obtained widespread application in controlling the Rice Sheath Blight. Since the 1980s, many excellent germicides including organicphosphorus kitazine, fosetyl; heterocyclic germicides such as triadimefon, tricyclazole and isoprothiolane; substituted benzenes germicides such as methyl thiophanate, chlorothalonil and metalaxyl have been popularized.


Other germicides Substituted benzene fungicide Inorganic fungicides Organophosphorus fungicides Organic Sulfur Fungicides Azole fungicides Pesticide germicide
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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
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Propiconazole 60207-90-1 C15H17Cl2N3O2
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Metam sodium 137-42-8 C2H4NNaS2
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Flutriafol 76674-21-0 C16H13F2N3O
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Tebuconazole 107534-96-3 C16H22ClN3O
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1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 96-12-8 C3H5Br2Cl
*
Penconazole 66246-88-6 C13H15Cl2N3
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Azoxystrobin 131860-33-8 C22H17N3O5
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Cyproconazole 94361-06-5 C15H18ClN3O
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Trifloxystrobin 141517-21-7 C20H19F3N2O4
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Isothiazolinones 26172-55-4 C4H4ClNOS
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4,5-Dichloro-2-octyl-isothiazolone 64359-81-5 C11H17Cl2NOS
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Propamocarb 24579-73-5 C9H20N2O2
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Difenoconazole 119446-68-3 C19H17Cl2N3O3
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Myclobutanil 88671-89-0 C15H17ClN4
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Hexaconazole 79983-71-4 C14H17Cl2N3O
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Kresoxim-methyl 143390-89-0 C18H19NO4
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Imidazole 288-32-4 C3H4N2
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4,6-Dichloropyrimidine 1193-21-1 C4H2Cl2N2
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1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone 66346-01-8 C13H17ClO
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DICHLOFLUANID 1085-98-9 C9H11Cl2FN2O2S2
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Fluazinam 79622-59-6 C13H4Cl2F6N4O4
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Benzimidazole 51-17-2 C7H6N2
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Pencycuron 66063-05-6 C19H21ClN2O
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Phthalide 87-41-2 C8H6O2
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Chlorothalonil 1897-45-6 C8Cl4N2
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1,2-Pentanediol 5343-92-0 C5H12O2
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THIOPHANAT-ETHYL 23564-06-9 C14H18N4O4S2
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5-IODO-2-METHYLBENZIMIDAZOLE 2818-70-4 C8H7IN2
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Imazalil sulfate 58594-72-2 C14H14Cl2N2O.H2O4S
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Mepronil 55814-41-0 C17H19NO2
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FLUDIOXONIL 131341-86-1 C12H6F2N2O2
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Cymoxanil 57966-95-7 C7H10N4O3
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Tecloftalam 76280-91-6 C14H5Cl6NO3
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PYRIMIDIFEN 105779-78-0 C20H28ClN3O2
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QUINOXYFEN 124495-18-7 C15H8Cl2FNO
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Epoxiconazol 106325-08-0 C17H13ClFN3O
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Benalaxyl 71626-11-4 C20H23NO3
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Tridemorph 24602-86-6 C19H39NO
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Flusilazole 85509-19-9 C16H15F2N3Si
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2-Bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol 52-51-7 C3H6BrNO4
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Propylene glycol 57-55-6 C3H8O2
BENTHIAVALICARB-ISOPROPYL
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Climbazole 38083-17-9 C15H17ClN2O2
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4-Bromo-2-methylimidazole 16265-11-5 C4H5BrN2
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PHENYLMERCURIC CHLORIDE 100-56-1 C6H5ClHg
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DITHIANON 3347-22-6 C14H4N2O2S2
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2-MERCAPTO-5-METHOXYBENZIMIDAZOLE 37052-78-1 C8H8N2OS
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DBDCB 35691-65-7 C6H6Br2N2
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Propineb 12071-83-9 C5H10N2S4
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2,4-Dichlorobenzyl chloride 94-99-5 C7H5Cl3
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ETHIRIMOL 23947-60-6 C11H19N3O
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2-(Thiocyanatomethylthio)benzothiazole 21564-17-0 C9H6N2S3
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TECNAZENE 117-18-0 C6HCl4NO2
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CAPTAFOL 2425-06-1 C10H9Cl4NO2S
ZHONGSHENGMYCIN C19H34O8N8
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PYROQUILON 57369-32-1 C11H11NO
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DICLOMEZINE 62865-36-5 C11H8Cl2N2O
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4-BROMO-1-METHYL-1H-IMIDAZOLE 25676-75-9 C4H5BrN2
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Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate 137-30-4 C6H12N2S4Zn1
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Fenpropidin 67306-00-7 C19H31N
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2",4"-Dichlorovalerophenone 61023-66-3 C11H12Cl2O
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Hymexazol 10004-44-1 C4H5NO2
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PYRIFENOX 88283-41-4 C14H12Cl2N2O
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Ofurace 58810-48-3 C14H16ClNO3
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Fluotrimazol 31251-03-3 C22H16F3N3
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THIFLUZAMIDE 130000-40-7 C13H6Br2F6N2O2S
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1,3-Dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin 118-52-5 C5H6Cl2N2O2
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METIRAM 9006-42-2 C12H12N6S16Zn
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FENPROPIMORPH 67306-03-0 C20H33NO
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NUARIMOL 63284-71-9 C17H12ClFN2O
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TRIFLUMIZOLE 68694-11-1 C15H15ClF3N3O
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PYRAZOPHOS 13457-18-6 C14H20N3O5PS
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TOLYLFLUANID 731-27-1 C10H13Cl2FN2O2S2
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CADUSAFOS 95465-99-9 C10H23O2PS2
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IMIBENCONAZOLE 86598-92-7 C17H13Cl3N4S
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Boscalid 188425-85-6 C18H12Cl2N2O
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Pyrimethanil 53112-28-0 C12H13N3
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Diclobutrazol 75736-33-3 C15H19Cl2N3O
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2,2-Dibromo-2-nitroethanol 69094-18-4 C2H3Br2NO3
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CYAZOFAMID 120116-88-3 C13H13ClN4O2S
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Fenpropimorph 67564-91-4 C20H33NO
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2,6-Dichloro-4-methylphenol 2432-12-4 C7H6Cl2O
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BROMUCONAZOLE 116255-48-2 C13H12BrCl2N3O
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FENBUCONAZOLE 114369-43-6 C19H17ClN4
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Ethylicin 682-91-7 C4H10O2S2
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Isoprothiolane 50512-35-1 C12H18O4S2
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O-CRESOL-D8 203645-65-2 C7D8O
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OXYCARBOXIN 5259-88-1 C12H13NO4S
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Famoxadone 131807-57-3 C22H18N2O4
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Bitertanol 55179-31-2 C20H23N3O2
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FENPICLONIL 74738-17-3 C11H6Cl2N2
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IMINOCTADINE TRIACETATE 39202-40-9 C24H53N7O6
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Pentachlorophenol 87-86-5 C6HCl5O
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TRIAZOXIDE 72459-58-6 C10H6ClN5O
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Tetramethylthiuram Disulfide 137-26-8 C6H12N2S4
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Sodium 2-biphenylate 132-27-4 C12H9NaO
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Carboxin 5234-68-4 C12H13NO2S
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FLUTOLANIL 66332-96-5 C17H16F3NO2
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1,3-THIAZOLIDIN-2-ONE 2682-49-7 C3H5NOS
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3,4"-Dichlorodiphenyl ether 6842-62-2 C12H8Cl2O

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