Germicide refers to chemicals that have the right to kill or inhibit the bacteria or fungi. Germicide can kill or inhibit the growth and proliferation the pathogens in ~ both outside the plant or inside the plants via the toxicity of the agents. Some kinds the germicides space non-toxic to the fungi, yet can interfere v the process of pathogenic procedure of fungus or influence the interaction of pathogen – host, enhancing the tree defenses.
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In the finish of 18th century to the 1850s, human being strengthened the study on the necessary germicide in order to seek the substitutes that copper and mercury preparations. The event of the greatest influence should it is in in 1934 when W. H. Tisdale reported the bactericidal result of dithiocarbamic mountain derivatives. This discovery opened up a new era of organic compounds together germicide. Complying with the discovery of bactericidal task of ziram, ferbam, and thiram, in 1935, DuPont had further uncovered the germicidal activity of sodium dithane in the dithane class. In 1943, human being had placed it right into production. After 1960s, dithiocarbamate salt germicide had actually gradually arisen into a class of germicide of the world"s largest production.
To date, there are nearly 300 kinds of necessary germicides that have been commercialized. Substituted benzene type contains PCNB, hexachlorobenzene, chlorothalonil and also dozens of various other varieties. Trichloromethylthio form germicide mainly contains folpet and captan. After 1950s, there space a many varieties having completed practical application, including organic mercury and also quinones, necessary tin, necessary phosphorus and agricultural antibiotics. In 1969 and also 1970, the ethyl thiophanate and also methyl thiophanate occurred by Nippon Soda firm (Japan) space two ideal varieties with the latter one specifically obtaining broad applications top top fruit trees and also vegetables. In the 1960s, Japan, during the advancement of germicide against rice sheath blight, had efficiently launched necessary arsenic germicides such together asomate and neoasozin. That is particularly worth mentioning that there have actually been a number of excellent germicides in the heterocyclic fungicides.
The breakthrough of systemic germicide to be actually started from the discovery of the systemic germicidal result of carboxin make by the Uniroyal company in 1960s. In 1966, carboxin and oxycarboxin had actually been at the same time subject to commercialization. Later, it had actually successively showed up of benomyl, dodecyl morpholine, thiophanate-methyl, and also triforine, etc. In 1970s, triazole-class systemic germicide with triadimefon as the representative had actually attracted vast attention.
However, the over germicides have really poor efficacy in treating countless kinds the important diseases caused by oomycete. In 1977, Ciba-Geigy agency (Switzerland) had actually successfully arisen systemic germicide, metalaxyl with terrific efficacy in prevention of an illness caused by oomycete. Metalaxyl is characterized by high efficacy, little usage amount and also having bidirectional conduction properties, make the systemic germicide get in into a new stage that development. China is among the earliest nations that had used the elements and inorganic agents for regulate of tree diseases. This had been recorded (see the background of pesticide development) in a range of well-known old writings. In 1950s, the many widely provided germicides are still not natural copper and also mercury preparations.
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Substituted benzene such as PCNB has additionally been applied. In 1960s dithiocarbamate salts and also organic arsenic preparations had actually been extensively used. In 1970s, it had been occurred of carbendazim, and had emerged into among the germicide ranges with the largest production lot in China. Meanwhile, China"s farming antibiotic, Jinggangmycin had likewise obtained widespread application in controlling the Rice Sheath Blight. Because the 1980s, plenty of excellent germicides including organicphosphorus kitazine, fosetyl; heterocyclic germicides such as triadimefon, tricyclazole and also isoprothiolane; substituted benzenes germicides such together methyl thiophanate, chlorothalonil and also metalaxyl have actually been popularized.
various other germicides Substituted benzene fungicide not natural fungicides Organophosphorus fungicides necessary Sulfur Fungicides Azole fungicides Pesticide germicide
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| ||Metam sodium||137-42-8||C2H4NNaS2|
| ||Imazalil sulfate||58594-72-2||C14H14Cl2N2O.H2O4S|
| ||Propylene glycol||57-55-6||C3H8O2|
| ||PHENYLMERCURIC CHLORIDE||100-56-1||C6H5ClHg|
| ||2,4-Dichlorobenzyl chloride||94-99-5||C7H5Cl3|
| ||Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate||137-30-4||C6H12N2S4Zn1|
| ||IMINOCTADINE TRIACETATE||39202-40-9||C24H53N7O6|
| ||Tetramethylthiuram Disulfide||137-26-8||C6H12N2S4|
| ||Sodium 2-biphenylate||132-27-4||C12H9NaO|
| ||3,4"-Dichlorodiphenyl ether||6842-62-2||C12H8Cl2O|
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