C. Gill Structure
All contemporary fishes have four respiratory gill arches and a 5th non-respiratory arch on every side that the buccal cavity. Each respiratory tract arch is created of a cartilaginous supporting framework which bears gill rakers in the front and respiratory organization in the rear. The gill rakers act prefer a strainer to keep food items native passing with the gills. Piscivorous fish have short, stubby rakers when planktivorous fish have gill rakers that room fine and also feathery. The respiratory organization is comprised of a paired series of filaments, comparable to a feather. There are two collection of filaments on each arch. One collection of filaments is termed a hemibranch, if both together are termed a holobranch.
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Blood flows from the heart toward the head in the ventral aorta. From the ventral aorta, afferent branchial arteries branch off to each gill arch and also run up the center of the cartilaginous arch, where one more branch comes turn off at every filament and is called the afferent filamental artery. Blood climate flows through the lamellar lacunae where the exchange of respiratory gases take away place. Shaft cells connect the sides of the lamellae staying clear of it native ballooning as result of blood pressure. Pillar cells also direct most of the blood flow into the marginal channel
Much speculation and also research has focused on whether a non-respiratory shunt exist in the gills the fish. Such an alternative pathway because that blood circulation would be beneficial, since during times of low respiratory need the fish can direct blood away kind the water, minimizing osmoregulatory ns or acquire
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