Amoeba
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AcanthamoebaScientific classificationKingdom:ProtistaPhylum:SarcodinaFamily:AmoebidaeGenus:AmoebaBery de St. Vincent, 1822

Amoeba (also order ameba) is a genus the protozoa that moves by means of momentary projections called pseudopods (false feet), and also is well-known as a representative uncellular cells organism. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotes, which demonstrate mobility and also heterotrophy prefer animals, but are group in the kingdom Protista. The many of amoeba is spelled either amoebas or amoebae.

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The indigenous amoeba is also used to describe both this genus and its nearby relatives, now grouped together the "Amoebozoa," and to refer to all unicellular biology that move by pseudopods. The pseudopods, or "false feet," result from the extension of cytoplasm outward. Any type of cells that move or feed by such temporary projections are referred to as amoeboid, and even some cells in multicell organisms are called amoeboid, such as person white blood cells.

The amoeba is just one of nature"s easiest organisms; yet, it shares many usual features v nature"s most progressed being, Homo sapiens, such together DNA, cellular structure, and the phagocytosis task of the white blood cells, whereby they engulf and also destroy pathogens.

Because of your simplistic nature, amoebas are frequently referenced in discussions of evolution, as those advocating architecture question how organisms as an easy as amoebas can evolve by accident or opportunity to productivity the good complexity viewed in life today. While amoebas frequently are presented together reproducing asexually, part researchers have suggested that evaluation of the proof of sexual reproduction in number of amoeboid lineages leader to the conclusion that amoeboid lineages room anciently sexual and also asexual groups are a more recent development.


Early naturalists described amoeba as the Proteus animalcule, after a Greek god that could adjust his shape. The surname amibe was offered to the by Bery St. Vincent, from the Greek amoibe, meaning change.

Characteristics

Amoebas, in the narrowest sense of the word (the genus), are uncovered in freshwater, frequently on disk vegetation from streams, but are not especially typical in nature. However, due to the fact that of the ease v which they may be obtained and kept in the lab, they are typical objects the study, both as representative protozoa and also to demonstrate cell structure and also function. The cells have several lobose pseudopods, through one big tubular pseudopod at the anterior and several secondary ones branching to the sides.

The most well known amoeba species, A. Proteus, is 700–800 μm in length, yet many others are lot smaller. Each has actually a single nucleus, and also a basic contractile vacuole that maintains that is osmotic pressure, as its most recognizable features.

Amoebas are characterized by the pseudopodia, i m sorry are offered in both transportation and also digestion. They have the right to encircle smaller sized protists and bacteria, close around them, and also secrete digestive enzymes right into this vacuole. The jellylike cytoplasm is differentiated into three parts, the thin, outer plasma membrane, a stiffer ectoplasmic layer in ~ the outer plasma membrane, and the granular endoplasm in the center, which consists of the nucleus and also vacuoles. Amoebas absorb oxygen and also water across the whole plasma membrane.

Amoebas room popularly thought about to blee asexually by dividing into two parts, similar to the cell division (mitosis complied with by cytokinesis) in multicell eukaryotes. The is, the original amoeba divides right into two cells. For this reason, writer Tom Robbins states, in the preface come his book Even Cowgirls acquire the Blues, that amoebas room interesting because their reproduction method means that the very first amoeba is still lively to this day. However, the really life bicycle of one amoeba is top top the stimulate of a few days come a couple of months to probably a year or more. Because that example, Taylor (1952) reports the the life cycle of Amoeba hugonis is 2 months and that A. Villosa reach adulthood in two or three months. ~ above the various other hand, M. Metcalf (1910) recommendations that the popular A. Proteus deserve to have a life cycle of a year or more.

Some researches, however, contents that sex-related reproduction was the predominant kind of reproduction of ancient amoeboid lineages and that the extent of asexuality in plenty of lineages is overestimated. Lahr et al. (2011) contend that the evidence of sexual reproduction in numerous amoeboid lineages, once mapped onto the eukaryotic bio tree of life, "demonstrates the the majority of amoeboid lineages are, contrary to famous belief, anciently sexual, and also that many asexual groups have probably emerged recently and also independently."

During disadvantage conditions, amoebas can get in a short-term encysted stage, together a an outcome of remove water and adding a safety coat. There have been some reports of sex-related reproduction; however, such accounts room unconfirmed.

Amoeba and human disease

There are at the very least six types of amoeba, in the wider sense that amoebozoa, that room parasitic in humans. However, most of them have an affect on the body characterized as "nonpathogenic intestinal amoeba infection." That way that these parasites are classified together ones that never ever make world sick or injury the body, also in human being with weak immune systems. For example, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba dispar, and also Entamoeba hartmanni are thought about harmless parasites.

Entamoeba histolytica, however, is a parasitic amoebozoa that negatively effects the person body, bring about the infectious an illness known as amebiasis. It is most usual in emerging countries the have bad sanitary conditions. Gentle amebiasis is connected with stomach pain and stomach cramping, yet a severe kind is amebic dysentery, i m sorry can cause stomach pain, fever, and also bloody stools. In the worse (but rare) cases, it deserve to spread to various other parts the the body, consisting of the mind and lungs. As a protection, one is recommend to drink only bottled or boiled water, versus drinking native fountain drinks, or taking any drinks with ice cubes. (Thus, the heat in Sammy Hager"s track "Más Tequila," collection in Mexico: "You can drink the water, but don"t eat the ice.") One is also advised no to eat new fruit or vegetables that you did not personally peel, or non-pasteurized dairy products products.

Collection

A great method that collecting amoeba is to reduced a jar upside down until it is just over the sediment surface. Then, gradually let waiting escape therefore the optimal layer will be sucked right into the jar. Effort should be made come not enable deeper sediment to acquire sucked in. The jar deserve to be progressively moved once tilting the so the collection can be from a bigger area. If no amoebas room found, one can shot introducing some rice grains into the jar and also waiting because that them to start to rot. The bacteria eating the rice will be eaten by the amoeba, thus increasing the population and do them much easier to find.

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References

Metcalf, M. 1910. Research studies upon amoeba. Journal of speculative Zoology 9:301-332.Taylor, M. 1952. Amoeba hugonis n.sp.: Life-history. Quarterly journal of Microscopical scientific research 93: 427-433.