Anatomy of the Retina

The front of the eye consists of the cornea, pupil, iris, and lens. The cornea is the transparent, external component of the eye. The covers the pupil and also the iris and also is the first location of light refraction. The pupil is the opening in the iris that enables light to enter the eye. The iris is the colored section of the eye the surrounds the pupil and together with local muscle can manage the dimension of the pupil to permit for an appropriate amount of irradiate to enter the eye. The lens is located behind the pupil and iris. The lens refracts light to focus images top top the retina. Ideal focusing needs the lens to stretch or relax, a procedure called accommodation.

You are watching: What part of the retina lacks photoreceptors?

The retina is the light-sensitive region in the earlier of the eye where the photoreceptors, the dedicated cells the respond to light, room located. The retina covers the entire back section of the eye, therefore it’s shaped like a bowl. In the middle of the key is the fovea, the an ar of highest visual acuity, an interpretation the area the can type the sharpest images. The optic nerve jobs to the mind from the earlier of the eye, carrying info from the retinal cells. Whereby the optic nerve leaves, there room no photoreceptors due to the fact that the axons from the neurons room coming together. This region is called the optic disc and also is the ar of the remote spot in our intuitive field.

*
Figure 19.1. Cross section of the eye. The visible regions of the eye include the cornea, pupil (gray region), and iris (blue region). The lens sits behind the pupil and iris. The retina (red line) is situated along the earlier of the eye. The fovea (dark red section) is a small section of the retina whereby visual acuity is highest, and also the optic disc is located where the optic nerve (tan region) pipeline the eye. Details about the functions of each an ar are in the text. ‘Eye Anatomy’ through Casey Henley is licensed under a creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike (CC BY-NC-SA) 4.0 worldwide License.

Retinal Cells

In enhancement to the photoreceptors, over there are four other cell types in the retina. The photoreceptors synapse on bipolar cells, and the bipolar cells synapse on the ganglion cells. Horizontal and amacrine cells allow for interaction laterally between the neurons.

*
Figure 19.2. There are five cell varieties in the retina. The photoreceptors synapse top top bipolar cells, and the bipolar cells synapse top top ganglion cells. The horizonal cells permit for communication between photoreceptors by connecting with the photoreceptor-bipolar cabinet synapse, and the amacrine cells enable for communication between bipolar cells by connecting at the bipolar cell-ganglion cabinet synapse. ‘Retinal Neurons’ by Casey Henley is license is granted under a an innovative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike (CC BY-NC-SA) 4.0 international License.

Direction the Information

When irradiate enters the eye and also strikes the retina, it need to pass through all the neuronal cell layers before reaching and also activating the photoreceptors. The photoreceptors climate initiate the synaptic communication earlier toward the ganglion cells.

*
Figure 19.3. Once light beginning the eye, it should pass v the ganglion and also bipolar cabinet layers before reaching the photoreceptors. The neuronal interaction travels in the contrary direction from the photoreceptors toward the ganglion cells. ‘Light in the Retina’ by Casey Henley is licensed under a an imaginative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike (CC BY-NC-SA) 4.0 worldwide License.Receptors

The photoreceptors are the specialized receptors that respond to light. There space two species of photoreceptors: rods and cones. Rods are much more sensitive come light, do them primarily responsible because that vision in low-lighting problems like in ~ night. Cones are less sensitive to light and are most active in daylight conditions. The cap are additionally responsible for color vision.

*
Figure 19.4. The rods and cones have different physical appearances and also play separate roles in intuitive processing. ‘Rod and Cone’ by Casey Henley is license is granted under a an imaginative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike (CC BY-NC-SA) 4.0 worldwide License.

Receptor Density

In addition to having various visual functions, the rods and cones are likewise distributed throughout the retina in various densities. The cones are primarily uncovered in the fovea, the region of the retina through the highest visual acuity. The remainder the the retina is predominantly rods. The an ar of the optic disc has actually no photoreceptors because the axons of the ganglion cells are leaving the retina and also forming the optic nerve.

*
Figure 19.5. Rods and cones space distributed across the retina in different densities. Cones are situated at the fovea. Rods room located anywhere else. The optic bowl lacks all photoreceptors because the optic nerve fibers space exiting the eye in ~ this location. ‘Retinal Receptor Density’ through Casey Henley is license is granted under a creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike (CC BY-NC-SA) 4.0 global License.

Phototransduction

The photoreceptors are responsible because that sensory transduction in the visual system, converting light into electric signals in the neurons. Because that our purposes, to study the role of the photoreceptors, we will certainly A) emphasis on black and white light (not shade vision) and B) i think the cell are relocating from either an area that dark to an area of irradiate or evil versa.

Photoreceptors perform not fire activity potentials; lock respond come light transforms with graded receptor potentials (depolarization or hyperpolarization). Regardless of this, the photoreceptors still relax glutamate ~ above the bipolar cells. The amount of glutamate released changes in addition to the membrane potential, therefore a hyperpolarization will lead to less glutamate gift released. Photoreceptors hyperpolarize in light and depolarize in dark. In the graphs used in this lesson, the starting membrane potential will rely on the initial light condition.

*
Figure 19.6. Photoreceptors respond with graded potentials when relocating from irradiate to dark or vice versa. A) When moving from dark come light, the photoreceptor will hyperpolarize, and glutamate release will decrease. B) When moving from irradiate to dark, the photoreceptor will depolarize, and also glutamate release will increase. ‘Photoreceptor Receptor Potentials’ by Casey Henley is license is granted under a an imaginative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike (CC BY-NC-SA) 4.0 worldwide License.

In the dark, the photoreceptor has a membrane potential that is much more depolarized than the “typical” neuron us examined in ahead chapters; the photoreceptor membrane potential is roughly -40 mV. Photoreceptors have actually open cation networks that permit the flow of sodium and calcium in the dark. These networks are gated by the visibility of cyclic GMP (cGMP), a molecule essential in second-messenger cascades the is existing in the photoreceptor in the dark.

*
Figure 19.7. In the dark, the photoreceptor is depolarized as result of an flow of sodium and calcium through open up ion networks that room gated through cGMP. The photoreceptor has high level of cGMP when it is in the dark. Additionally, the opsin proteins, the G-protein transducin, and also phosphodiesterase (PDE) are all inactivated. ‘Retinal Dark Current’ by Casey Henley is license is granted under a an imaginative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike (CC BY-NC-SA) 4.0 worldwide License.

See more: Is Greg Cosell Related To Howard Cosell, Who Is Howard Cosell'S Son

When the photoreceptor moves right into the light, the cell hyperpolarizes. Irradiate enters the eye, get the photoreceptors, and causes a conformational change in a special protein referred to as an opsin. This readjust activates a G-protein called transducin, which then activates a protein dubbed phosphodiesterase (PDE). PDE breaks down cGMP come GMP, and the cGMP-gated ion networks that were open in the dark close. The decrease in cation circulation into the cell causes the photoreceptor to hyperpolarize.