CaCl2, described as calcium chloride, is a member the alkaline planet metal halides i.e., MX2, where, M is one alkaline planet metal. The is an inorganic compound of white shade without any kind of odor.

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Calcium chloride is crystalline in nature and can it is in easily dissolved in water. That is hygroscopic in nature and hence, used in the desiccators for drying chemicals.

The melting and boiling suggest of anhydrous calcium chloride is really high. However, the melting allude of hexahydrate calcium chloride is only 29.9 °C. The molecular weight of that is anhydrous form is 111 g/mol.

Generally, calcium chloride is found in the hydrated type i.e., CaCl2 (H2O)n, whereby n = 0, 1, 2, 4, and also 6. Calcium chloride is all set by reaction of calcium hydroxide through hydrogen chloride.

Ca(OH)2 + 2HCl —-> CaCl2 + 2H2O

Calcium chloride can also be created from limestone by the Solvay procedure i.e. CaCO3 + 2NaCl → CaCl2 + Na2CO3

Calcium chloride produces free calcium ions i.e., the aqua complicated of calcium ion and also chloride ion through dissolving themselves in water together follows

CaCl2 + 6H2O —–> 2+ + 2Cl

This reaction results in one appreciable rise in temperature i.e., exothermic reaction, and also hence, resolution of calcium chloride in water has actually a high enthalpy the solvation.

So, is CaCl2 Ionic or Covalent? CaCl2 is an ionic compound owing come the huge electronegativity difference between the calcium atom and chlorine atom, i m sorry is better than 2.0.

In calcium chloride, the calcium atom donates its 2 electrons and also become cation whereas every chlorine atom gain one electron, donated by Calcium, and also get a an adverse charge.

Now, the calcium cation and also the chlorine anions room attracted by the electrostatic pressure of attraction and hence, there is the formation of one ionic bond between these 2 atoms.

Let us start the conversation of the ionic nature that calcium chloride in depth.

Let united state initiate this conversation with the basics of chemistry bonds i.e., Ionic and also Covalent Bond.


Chemical Bond

The chemical bond is the force of attraction in between the atoms of the molecule, which brings atoms with each other in their chemical structure.

When one atom develops a chemistry bond, it has tendency to attain the nearest noble gas configuration.

A chemistry bond is developed either by transferring electrons or by sharing electrons in between atoms that the molecule.

The chemical bond is developed by the joining of just valence electrons, electron of the outermost shell, of the atom.

There space two types of chemistry bonds based on their formation.

Covalent shortcut Ionic Bond

Covalent Bond

The covalent shortcut results as soon as there is a sharing of electron pair between atoms of the molecule. However, this sharing might be same or unequal depending upon the electronegativity that the constituent atom of the molecules.

Hence, a covalent bond might be polar or nonpolar.

In covalent bonding, the ionization power of the atom is an extremely high that it can not donate its electron or electron pair.

Ionic Bond

The ionic shortcut is the chemical bond between metal and also nonmetal.

As metals have low ionization energy and also hence, they can conveniently transfer their electron to another atom. Nonmetals quickly accept this electrons fan to their high electron get enthalpy or electron affinity.

Hence, ionic link results once there is transferring of electron (s) one of two people from one atom to an additional atom or from steel to nonmetal.

As there is the development of cations and anion, there will be the electrostatic pressure of attraction in between them.

How Ionic Bond development takes location in Calcium Chloride


The formation of calcium chloride can be described by the Born Haber cycle.

Let us know the development of calcium chloride in detail.

The calcium chloride compound is composed of one calcium atom and also two chlorine atoms. As we understand that the calcium atom belong to team 2 the the modern-day periodic table and also hence, it is a metal.

Whereas the chlorine atom belongs to team 17 the the modern-day periodic table and therefore, it is a nonmetal.

Metals have really low ionization energy (I.E.) and hence, the calcium atom will lose its electron easily. It is a two-step procedure i.e., lose of one electron every step.

As calcium is a white crystalline solid and also hence, the very first step would be the counter of hard calcium to gas calcium atom by providing sublimation power (ΔHsub) because metals have the right to donate their electrons just in gaseous form.

Ca (s) + ΔHsub → Ca (g)

Ca (g) + (I.E.)1 → Ca+(g) + e-

Ca+(g) + (I.E.)2 → Ca2+ (g) + e

Usually, the second ionization energy is higher than the an initial ionization energy. However, the is not true in the instance of the calcium atom i.e., alkaline planet metals.

Let us define this controversy.

The floor state electronic configuration of the calcium atom is 4s2. Here, we need to provide a large amount of energy for the extraction of one electron from the 4s subshell together it is a to fill subshell.

After the removed of an electron, the digital configuration the the unipositive calcium ion i do not care 4s1.

Now, it is simple to remove an electron by providing a small amount of energy since it will attain a secure noble has actually configuration i.e., the Argon atom.

Hence, the second ionization energy of calcium is smaller sized than the first ionization energy

The chlorine atom is a nonmetal and hence, it has actually a high tendency to obtain electrons fan to that high electron affinity (E.A.) as compared to the calcium atom. Hence, the chlorine atom will certainly accept the electron donated by the calcium atom.

The chlorine atom exist in diatomic form i.e., Cl2. Therefore, the first step would certainly be the dissociation the chlorine facets into chlorine atoms and the next step would be accept of electrons.

½ Cl2 (g) + ΔHdiss → Cl (g)

Cl (g) + e- → Cl-(g) + E.A.

Now, one calcium ion will integrate with two chlorine ions, and also hence, ionic bond development takes place in between them by releasing energy. This energy is known as Lattice energy (U) and also its value relies upon the strength of the Ionic bond.

Ca2+ (g) + 2Cl-(g) → CaCl2 (s) + U

The lattice power (U) the the calcium chloride is -2195 kJ/mol.

How carry out we get to understand that calcium chloride is an Ionic compound?


Differentiation in between Ionic and also Covalent bond

The ionic and covalent bonds have the right to be differentiated on the basis of the electronegativity difference of the bond between atoms.

A chemical bond is one Ionic shortcut if the electronegativity difference of the chemical bond is better than 2.0 and also it will certainly be a covalent bond if the electronegativity difference is much less than 2.0 ~ above the Pauling scale.

How Calcium Chloride is one Ionic compound?

In the case of the calcium chloride compound (CaCl2),

On Pauling Scale,

The electronegativity worth of the calcium atom = 1.0

The electronegativity worth of the chlorine atom = 3.16

The electronegativity difference of the Ca-Cl bond = 2.16

The electronegativity distinction of the Ca-Cl shortcut in the calcium chloride compound is 2.16 top top the Pauling scale, i beg your pardon is better than 2.0 and also confirms the ionic nature of the Ca-Cl bond.

Hence, calcium chloride is one ionic compound.

Calcium chloride is highly soluble in water fan to that ionic nature.

Anhydrous calcium chloride crystallizes in the orthorhombic and tetragonal framework whereas hexahydrate calcium chloride crystallizes itself in trigonal structure.

Uses the Calcium Chloride

Calcium chloride in water decreases the freezing allude of water and also hence, it avoids the formation of ice and is used for de-icing.A highly focused solution that calcium chloride top top the road prevents the formation of the dust owing to its hygroscopic nature and forming a liquid layer ~ above the surface ar of the road.


Here, we have questioned the ionic nature of calcium chloride.

In summary, calcium chloride is one ionic link owing come the large electronegativity distinction of the Ca-Cl bond in calcium chloride, i beg your pardon is greater than 2.0. The calcium atom forms a hopeful calcium ion by losing two electrons and the chlorine atom forms a an adverse chlorine ion by accepting one electron.

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The calcium ion and chlorine ion lure each various other via electrostatic pressure of attraction and an ionic bond formation takes place in between them by releasing power in the form of Lattice energy.