The American polite War, like all together uprisings, was slow inconception and subtle in development. Political commissions andomissions lay at the root of the explosion. The presence of enslavement ina new nation that proclaimed liberty for all, the role of the previouslysovereign says in a main government yet to be clearly defined, thegrowing industrial can of the north competing an ext and much more with the"Cotton Kingdom" agriculture of the South, a general lack ofunderstanding and also communication in between the sections of a country thatwas a United says in name only—these were the significant issues thatneither time nor statesmen might resolve. So in December 1860, theshouting turned to shooting, the politician gave method to the soldier, andwar replaced uncertainty.

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In a dispute that to be the largest in the background of the WesternHemisphere, the civil War lugged unprecedented suffering in every form.Yet the greatest tragedy of all was that both sides were fighting forthe very same thing: America, together North and South each envisioned what thestill-ripening republic must be.

Young guys of the Union and also Confederacy alike saw war to defendthe exact same Constitution. A Louisiana recruit created in June 1861 that heand his friends were Confederate soldiers because "the Magna Carta ofliberties, the constitution," had actually "fallen completely into the hand of fanatics." an additional Confederate placed it succinctly: "We arefighting for the Constitution that our forefathers made, and not as oldAbe would have actually it." A few months later, one Ohio personal asserted that "the toughness of thenation is to be tried here, even if it is we have actually a nation or not; whetherour structure is a rope the sand, the it might be severed wherever itis smote."

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CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS OF company D, third GEORGIA INFANTRY. (MC)

In America"s eighth decade, preserving the Union and also preserving far of life had actually somehow end up being incompatible ideals. The many effectivemotivation for northern recruits to be "the Union" and also all the itdenoted. Many remembered your grandparents relating trembling storiesof the 1770s and also the fight because that American independence. Again and again inthe letter of Billy Yanks, one encounters the expression "fighting tomaintain the best government on earth."

Southerners saw the outbreak that civil battle in a various light. ANorth Carolinian explained: The Southern says passed ordinances ofsecession because that the objective of withdrawing indigenous a cooperation in i beg your pardon themajority were oppressing the minority, and we just asked "to it is in letalone."

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CALL FOR volunteers RECRUITING POSTER from SEPTEMBER 1861. (LC)

Protection the home and also hearth likewise became basic aims of bothsides. One southern enlistee in 1861 defined why he was joining thearmy: "If us are conquered we will be thrust penniless and also dishonoredfrom the floor of our birth.... Together I have frequently said I had actually rather loss inthis reason than to live to see my nation dismantled the its glory andindependence—for the its respect it cannot be deprived."

A Wisconsin personal felt basically the same means two year later.To his sweetheart he wrote: "Home is sweet and also friends are dear, butwhat would certainly they all be to let the nation go in ruin, and also be a slave....I recognize that i am doing mine duty, and also I recognize that the is my duty to execute as Iam now a-doing. If ns live to obtain back, ns shall beproud that the freedom I candlestick have, and also know the I aided to obtain thatfreedom. If I need to not get back, the will carry out them an excellent that execute getback."

In 1861 tens of hundreds of American youths ~ above both political parties rushed toanswer the speak to to arms. They came to be soldiers since they had actually beencaught up in the boil atmosphere and angry words of the day, or theyhad to be emotionally moved by swaying oratory, motivating music,patriotic slogans, the vision of a flag waving defiantly in the air.Youthful innocence and dreamy passion swept them onward. A Confederateveteran later on recalled: "I was a mere boy and also carried far byboyish enthusiasm. I was tormented through a feverish anxiety prior to I joinedmy regiment for are afraid the fighting would be over before I got intoit."

Those recruits were ready to fight, but few of lock knew just how tofight. The battle of 1812 to be history, the Mexican battle a vague childhoodrecollection to many of the youths drawn into the struggle of the 1860s.They had actually no conception of drill, life in the open, complying with ordersunhesitatingly, mastering weapons, digging earthworks, and eatingunfamiliar food. Lock would face the novelty of life in companywith thousands of strangers. Lock would challenge diseases they had neverknown and also wounds they had never imagined. And also through it all, thesecommon-folk-turned-soldiers would endure homesickness to a degree none of them had everenvisioned.

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RECRUITING OFFICE OF ninth MASSACHUSETTS BATTERY, BOSTON, 1862. (LC)

About 3,000,000 soldiers battled in the polite War, through the Northhaving a 2 come 1 ratio. The guys of blue and gray to be far an ext alike thanunalike. Mostly assets of rural backgrounds, they spoke the samelanguage and also shared the very same heritage. Lock had typical hopes; theyendured typical hardships. The majority of soldiers knew the basicrudiments that reading and writing. Billy Yanks often tended to be bettereducated since most northern states had far better school systems. In someunits formed in the rural South, illiteracy was pronounced. Thirty-sixof 72 privates in one phibìc Carolina agency made a mark rather than asignature at the muster-in; 27 the 100 recruits in one more Tarheelcompany walk the same.

Johnny Rebs and also Billy Yanks were also highly independent-minded.They went turn off to war as citizen-soldiers: volunteers who tended toremain much more citizen 보다 soldier. An extremely seldom did this men became fullyregimented and also militarized. Countless of them kept in huge measure anignorance of military life and also an indifference to military discipline. In camp,on the march, and also in battle, they fought with a loosenessthat no quantity of training might remove. Soldiers ~ above both sidesdemonstrated the they could be led yet they could not be driven; andany officer who attempted the last was bound to conference at leastresistance and also at many rebellion. The individualism the the civil War"scommon soldiers was but a enjoy of the societies that spawnedthem.

Typical people in mid-nineteenth century America, the armyvolunteers of North and also South performed as one might expect. Countless ofthem became outstanding soldiers, some of them had actually rather bad records,a few were shirkers and also cowards; many of them, however, to be justaverage. However for four horrible year those representatives of thenation"s usual folk bore on their shoulders the heaviestresponsibilities the have ever before been inserted on the civilization of this land.And they carried that burden so fine that us still marvel at theirstrength and endurance.

Their story is a mixture of hardship, humor, and also heroism—whichare certain the means in which Johnny Rebs and Billy Yanks would liketo be remembered.

On enlistment, a man"s physical condition received small attentionfrom contract surgeons or anyone rather in attendance. Then came about twoweeks in i beg your pardon recruits in ~ a rendezvous camp went v the awkwardprocess of discovering the basic rudiments of camp life, drill, and the useof arms. Through the end of that period, the miscellaneous companies to be organizedinto regiments.

The clothing and also equipment spread to each recruit can haveseemed bulky to northern soldiers, who often tended to that abundantly suppliedat the outset. Confederate enlistees often had to rely on individualefforts come clothe and also equip themselves. One Virginian wrote through assurance:"Wisdom is born of experience, and before many campaigns have beenworried v the private soldier, decreased to the minimum, consistedof one man, one hat, one jacket, one pair pants, one pair draws, onepair socks, and his baggage to be one blanket, one gum-cloth, and also onehaversack."

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CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS STRIPPING collapse UNION TROOPS of CLOTHING. (LC)

Regulation uniforms to be dark blue because that the North and also light gray forthe South. However, cloth—like everything else—quickly becamescarce in the embattled Confederacy. The principal resource for Southernsoldier apparel soon became captured Union uniforms. Johnny Rebs soughtto change the color by dying the garments in a mixture the walnut hulls,acorns, and also lye. This readjusted the tint to a light tan i m sorry Southernerslabeled "butternut."

The development to government-issue attire could be a shock.Federal uniforms come in four simple sizes. A new England recruit witnessed amessmate "so strict buttoned it appeared doubtful if he might drawanother breath." over in the 10th Rhode Island, a soldier said of afriend that was much less than 5 feet tall: "His an initial pair of military drawers reached to hischin. This be considers really economical, together it conserves the need ofshirts."

Of course, through some troops no quality of clothing and equipmentcould enhance their appearance. In 1863 Louisiana soldier Robert Newellwatched 400 Texas rangers ride right into camp. Newell was repulsed in ~ the sight."If the Confederacy has no far better soldiers than those we space in A badroe because that stumps, for they looke much more like Baboons an installed on gotes thananything else."

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DRAWING by CIVIL war ARTIST EDWIN FORBES that A SERGEANT MAJOR,12TH new YORK VOLUNTEERS. (LC)

Quite often, at the finish of simple training, a regional delegation (dominatedlargely by women) bestowed an ornate flag top top the regiment. The ladypresenting the standard would implore the men in a flowery decided tolove your country and also to fight because that it through their lives. Acceptingthe flag, an officer would certainly respond through an same glowing attend to pledgingthat his guys would never disgrace the sacred banner.

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SOLDIERS that THE 23RD PENNSYLVANIA. (USAMHI)

On more than one occasion, a foulup do this awareness ludicrous. Together wasthe situation the afternoon the women of Fayetteville provided a flag to the 43rdNorth Carolina. Nobody of the great ladies was willing to make thepresentation speech, therefore they invite a neighborhood orator of part reputationto execute the honors. The man, a little bit nervous in ~ the starring function he was tohave, strengthened himself beforehand v a drink, climate another, andanother. He managed to stumble come the speaker"s stand, and also he somehowgot v his address in a halting manner. Then, momentarilyoblivious come everything, the proceeded to give the same speech every overagain—after which he satellite down and also cried, come the mortification ofthe ladies and to the amusement the the soldiers.

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PRESENTATION that A REGIMENTAL FLAG ON instead of OF THE women OF BOSTON. (LC)

Proud recruits who left for battle had strong opinions around theshirkers who stayed behind. Personal Henry be affected by each other of Illinois offered atypical expression. From camp in Tennessee, be affected by each other instructed his wife:"You have to tell evry male of Doubtful loyalty for me, increase ther in thenorth, the he is meaner than any kind of son of a bitch in hell. I would rathershoot among them a good deal more than one livinghere."

Unique regiments abounded top top both sides during the polite War. The1st new York, under Colonel Elmer Ellsworth, to be recruited greatly fromthe brand-new York Fire department ranks and also was well-known to contain severaldangerous criminals. The average period of every officers and also men in the 23rd Pennsylvania wasnineteen. In contrast was the 37th Iowa, known as the "GraybeardRegiment" since all recruits for this residence guard unit had to it is in atleast forty-five years of age.

Faculty indigenous the Illinois State common College so dominated the 33rdIllinois the it was known as the "Teacher"s Regiment." the officerswere often accused the refusing come obey any kind of order the was not absolutelycorrect in grammar and also syntax. The "Iowa Temperance Regiment" acquired itssobriquet because its whole membership vowed that it would certainly "touch not,taste not, manage not spirituous or malt liquor, wine or cider." part ofthe Iowans later in the battle violated the pledge, however they were excusedon the grounds that "it has actually only gone to such times as they were underthe overruling strength of armed forces necessity."

Civil War militaries were young in composition. Eras ranged indigenous ladswith smooth faces to old guys with gray beards. The largest solitary agegroup to be eighteen, complied with by soldiers twenty-one and nineteen.Unknown number of kids served in the armies. Edward black was nineyears old when he gone into an Indiana regiment. Among the youngestConfederate soldiers was Charles C. Hay, who joined one Alabama regimentat the period of eleven. Man Mather Sloan that Texas shed a foot in fight atthe period of thirteen.

The most famed of the dozens the young drummer boys was Johnny Clemof Newark, Ohio. He saw war at the period of ten. In Clem"s firstbattle, a covering fragment ripped his drum apart. He ended up being known as"Johnny Shiloh." Gallantry in action two years later brought himpromotion come sergeant. Clem made the military acareer, and he retired in 1916 with the rank of major general.

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JOHNNY CLEM, "THE DRUMMER boy OF CHICKAMAUGA." (USAMHI)

Three "boys" had actually extraordinary careers in the polite War.Pennsylvania"s Galusha Pennypacker received promotion to brigadiergeneral a month prior to his twenty-first birthday. Wilhelm P. Robertsbecame the Confederacy"s youngest basic at the period of twenty-three.Arthur MacArthur, father of the famed world War II commander, won theCongressional Medal of respect at Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, while onlyeighteen. Month later, MacArthur came to be colonel the the 24th Wisconsin,and after the battle he climbed to lieutenant basic in the army.

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BRIGADIER basic GALUSHA PENNYPACKER (CWL)

At the other finish of the period spectrum to be Curtis King, that servedfour month in the 37th Iowa prior to being discharged fordisability. King was eighty. Among the oldest of the Confederateswas F. Pollard. In the summer of 1862, the 73-year-old north Carolinianenlisted as a substitute. Pollard was quickly discharged "forrheumatism and old age."

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BRIGADIER basic WILLIAM P. ROBERTS (LC)

Civil battle soldiers come in every size. The shortest organization man wasfrom Ohio and also stood 3 feet, 4 customs tall. In contrast, David VanBuskirk the Indiana was 6 feet, 11 inches in height. Van Buskirk had aready reply for those who gawked openly at his stature. As soon as he left forwar, he would say, every of his six sisters "leaned down and also kissed me ontop of the head."

Occupations the the soldiers were no as varied as would certainly exist in atroop call-up today. A survey of 9,000 Civil war soldier occupationscontained 5,600 farmers. The next vocations to be students (474),laborers (472), and also clerks (321). Several of the remaining occupationsgiven were unique. One man termed himself a rogue, another detailed hisstatus as convict, and several recruits placed down your occupation as"gentleman."

The greatest flood of immigrant in the nation"s history occurred inthe years just before the civil War. New England and the Midwestbecame residence for the vast majority of those new citizens. As a result,one of every 5 Billy Yanks to be foreign-born. In contrast, one ofevery twenty Johnny Rebs was born outside the country. Every nationalityhad to represent in the polite War.

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JAMES WARD, MUSICIAN, 76TH OHIO, ENLISTEDOCTOBER 9, 1861, age SIXTY. (PHOTO COURTESY the DENNIS KEESEE)
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WILLIAM BLACK, period TWELVE, IS taken into consideration THE YOUNGEST wounded SOLDIER of THE WAR. (LC)

No international group ~ above either next in the war gained greaterrenown—positively and also negatively—than the Irish. Theyquickly earned a call for overindulgence in whiskey and anoverfondness for fighting, whether it it is in the foe or themselves. Toan Indiana soldier stationed near Vicksburg in 1863, the arrivalof some reinforcements was hardly reassuring. "The 90th Ill., theIrish Regiment," he created in his diary, "came into camp just ago of usthis morning. And also such a time together those fellows go have. They acquired into a row about putting up your tents andhad a free for all fight and also were knocking each various other over the head withpick handles, time poles, and also any point they got hold of. Pretty soontheir Colonel, O Marah, come out of his tent v a great wide bladedbroadsword that is said to have actually belonged to several of his ancestors. And the way he didbast those irish fellows with the flat of it to be a caution. The stoppedthe row, and they cleared up down. His Regiment adore him."

Felix Brannigan the the 75th brand-new York readily available a personal explanationof how he and also his other Irishmen thought. "As us rush on through the tideof battle, severe feeling of are afraid is swallowed increase in the wild happiness we feelthrilling thro every fibre of ours system. . . . There is an elasticityin the irish temperament which permits its possessor come boldly stareFate in the face, and laugh at every the reverses of fortune . . .and crack a joke through as much glee in the warmth of battle as in thesocial one by the winter fire."

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ENLISTED IRISH and also GERMAN IMMIGRANTSIN new YORK. Hardwood ENGRAVING indigenous LONDON shown NEWS, 1864. (LC)
Germans, Italians, English and also Canadians additionally served in largenumbers v the Union armies. Union encampments regularly soundedlike "a babel the tongues."

Germans, Italians, Englishmen, and also Canadians additionally served in largenumbers with the Union armies. Union encampments frequently sounded favor "ababel the tongues." A Mississippi surgeon as soon as listened to a lengthy lineof Union prisoners pass. He then turned come a colleague and also saiddespairingly: "Pierce, we are fighting the world."

Representatives of fifteen different nations served in one NewYork regiment. Fortunate it was that the Hungarian colonel the the unitcould provide orders in seven different tongues. Scandinavians to be especiallyvisible in units from the upper Midwest. The 15th Wisconsin waspredominantly Norwegian. Identification in the unit must have been a problemfor 128 men had actually the first name the Ole and also in one agency were fivemen named Ole Olsen.