L>Mitosis and Meiosis: A Review

Cell Division: A ReviewCells deserve to reproduce one of two people asexually via mitosis or sexually via meiosisIn mitosis, asexual cabinet division, one diploid (2n) parental cell gives rise to 2 diploid daughter cells that space genetically the same to the original cell and to each other.

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Where walk mitosis occur?In multicell organisms, somatic (body) cells undergo mitosis come provide brand-new cells for growth or to replace cells that have actually been damaged and died.Some species reproduce via asexually (sometimes referred to as parthenogenesis native the Greek parthen, "virgin" and also genesis, "origin". In together species, progenitor cells are created via mitosis.A clone is a team of geneticallyidentical organisms. Mito - Greek because that "thread"(referring come the threadlike appearance of the chromosomes throughout division)sis - Greek because that "theact of"In meiosis, sex-related cell division, one diploid (2n) meiocyte (a.k.a. Germline cell) divides to produce four haploid (n) daughter cells. this are further processed to come to be sex cell (gametes).meio - "less"Meiosis is "the plot of do less"Where does meiosis occur?In sexually reproducing organisms, a meiocyte (a.k.a. Germline cell) undergoes meiosis to create gametes. In animals this occurs in the gonads (ovaries in females; testes in males). In plants this wake up in the archegonia in females and in the antheridia in males. In fungi this wake up in devoted structures ~ above fruiting bodies called sporangia. Protists have the right to undergo meiosis to develop haploid version of us which then deserve to fuse v other individuals who have actually done the same thing. Prokaryotes (bacteria and also archaea) don"t undergo mitosis or meiosis since they space haploid, and don"t have actually linear chromosomes.
Mitosis: Asexual cell DivisionA cell undergoes mitosis to create two (daughter) cells that are genetically identical to the initial (parent) cell.Cellular structures pertinent to mitosis or meiosis: plasma membrane - "gateway" of the cell cytosol - proteinaceous matrix containing the oribelles mitochondria and also chloroplasts - power transduction organelles save circular DNA separate from the nucleus mitochondrial DNA - mtDNA chloroplast DNA - cpDNA DNA is circular, not linear resembles bacterial DNA mtDNA, passed on only via maternal parent, is sometimes dubbed "Eve"s DNA" nuclear membrane - twin membrane surrounding the DNA and also forming the cell core nucleoplasm - proteinaceous procession inside the nucleus nucleolus - dark-staining an ar within the cell nucleus locatedat the Nucleolar Organizer region (NOR) that the DNA. That is the site of ribosom assembly. centromere - place of the kinetochore,the physical structure to i beg your pardon spindle fibers attach.
Chromosomes have the right to be share on the basis of centromere position: metacentric - at the midpoint the the chromosome submetacentric - slightly counter from the midpoint the the chromosome acrocentric - close come the end of the chromosome telocentric - in ~ the telomere p arm = brief arm the a chromosome q arm = long arm that a chromosomeBy convention, chromosomes are depicted with the short arms pointing upward.

Phases of Mitosis

The phases allow us come separate significant events of cabinet division.They are split somewhat arbitrarily. But you need to know them, anyway. Once a cabinet is not actively dividing, it may be in interphase - typical state that the cell Gap 1 - proteins essential for cell department are produced Synthesis (S) phase - DNA is replicated Gap 2 - short duration between DNA synthetic completion and start of mitosis Prophase euchromatin condenses into heterochromatin chromosomes are now visible together joined sisters chromatids nucleolus disappears (no more ribosome synthesis!) mitotic spindle develops Metaphase spindle microtubules have actually attached come the kinetochores that the sister chromatids replicated chromosomes line up at the metaphase key Anaphase spindle pull the sister chromatids apart, drawing them to opposite poles the the cell. Telophase chromosome sets assemble at the opposite poles of the cell nuclear envelope forms roughly each chromosome setelophase is (usually) followed by cytokinesis, department of the cytoplasm to form two brand-new cells. Each brand-new daughter cell is genetically similar to the parental cell.Meiosis: sex-related Cell DivisionA cell undergoes meiosis to develop four (daughter) cells (gametes) that space genetically different native the original (parent) cell (germline cell).Meiosis produce haploid cells from a diploid cabinet in ready for sexual reproduction.Why Sex?The word comes from the Latin secare, which way to cutor divide something the was as soon as whole. throughout meiosis, the do of sex cells, the genetic enhance of a parental cell is split into two identical halves.Meiosis I is reduction division - the cell goes from having two homologous chromosomes every pair to having actually only one member of every homologous pair.Meiosis II is equational division - the cabinet divides again, in basically the same manner as mitosis: the sister chromatids segregate to two brand-new daughter cells.

Stages of Mitosis: Meiosis I

Prophase IA. leptonema (adjective=leptotene) indigenous the Greeklepto, an interpretation "thin" 1. Atom envelope and also nucleoli disappear 2. Spindle fibers begin to kind 3. In animals, centrioles begin migration to oppositepoles. 4. Chromosomes start to supercoil 5. "loose" or "rough" pairing of homologs (synapsis is simply starting)B. zygonema (adjective = zygotene) indigenous the Greekzygo, meaning "yoke" 1. Synaptonemal facility forms: two paired homologs room joined by a "ladderlike" complex of synaptonemal proteins. Once this is complete, the pair is knownas a bivalent. 2. Synapsis is continuing to developC. pachynema (adjective = pachytene) native the Greekpachy, definition "thick" 1. Chromosomes become shorter and more thickness (moresupercoiling) 2. Sister chromatids start to unwind, becoming visibleas two chromosomes join at the centromere 3. In ~ this point, the bivalent is well-known as a tetrad4. Crossing over takes place(Note: homologous pairs are analogous come a "husbandand wife", and also the sisters chromatids room analogous to identicaltwins--at least before crossing over.)D. diplonema (adj = diplotene) from the Greek diplo,meaning "double" 1. Synaptonemal complex starts to disintegrate 2. Chiasmata (crossover points) end up being visible,sometimes as a complicated mesh, since there may be many crossover points. 3. Note that sisters chromatids space no longer identical,as they have undergone crossing over.(Note: some pets stop here, consisting of humans. Meiosis does not proceed until fertilization or ovulation.)E. diakinesis indigenous the Greek dia, meaning"across" and kinesis, an interpretation "movement." 1. Chiasmata relocate tothe advice of the chromatids, wherein they continue to be attached. Thisprocess is well-known as terminalization. 2. Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores. Metaphase I - spindle yarn arrange homologs alongthe metaphase plate in ~ the cell"s equator. Anaphase I- spindle fibers different homologs, carryingthem come opposite poles, but sister chromatids room still connectedat the centromere. At this point, each two-part member that the previous tetrad is known as a dyad Telophase I, if it wake up (some varieties skip this step), is a backwards progression to interphase-like conditions. In Meiosis, the is recognized as interkinesis.Meiosis II: the equational division is physicallythe exact same as mitosis, though the hereditary composition in the nuclei room different since of cross over and also recombination.After meiosis, gametogenesis wake up to make the newhaploid cells into gametes.
The generalized animal scenario:Male: Testes contain 2n spermatogonial cells, whichconstantly renew us via mitosis. At some point, somewill mature and enter right into meiosis to become... primary spermatocytes <2n --> 2(n + n)>. These diploid cell undergo meosis ns to become two... secondary spermatocytes (n + n). Haploid spermatocytes experience meiosis II to end up being four spermatids (n). Additional spermatogenesis outcomes in the typicalflagellated spermatozoa.Female: Ovaries save on computer 2n oogonial cells, i beg your pardon usually execute notrenew themselves. At some point in their cellular lifespan, these get in into meiosis i tobecome primary oocytes <2n --> 2(n + n)>, which undergo meosisI. One primary oocyte will end up being a polar body The polar body will certainly divide again to provide rise to a second polar body. Meanwhile, the other major oocyte will become a... secondary oocyte (n + n), which will certainly undergo meiosis IIto end up being one ootid and another polar body (n).4. Further oogenesis outcomes in the common cytoplasm-richovum.Plant gametogenesis to add an extra generation. Oversimplifying a bit, we have...Male: within the microsporangium the a sporophyte plant, microsporocyte (2n) undergoes meiosis I and II to create haploid microspores (n). each microspore grows into a haploid male gametophyte (n) The gametophyte produce sperm (n) via mitosis.Female: inside the megasporangium that a sporophyte plant, a megasporocyte (2n) undergoes meiosis I and also II to create asingle haploid megaspore (n) the 3 polar bodies developed degenerate, together in animals The megaspore grows right into the female gametophyte (n), i m sorry produces ova (n) via mitosis. polyspermy: blend of much more than one sperm through a single egg.In animals, this is practically always lethal, together polyploidy (more than 2 sets of chromosomes) will not create a viable pet embryoIn plants, however, polyspermy is one means that polyploidy can an outcome in speciation.

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Chromosomes: Pairs and Sets

euploidy - the normal number of chromosome to adjust members of all homologous pairs...expected in a given cell (of that is species).(from the Greek eu, definition "true") aneuploidy- much more or fewer than the normal number of chromosomes every homologous pair (from the Greek an - "away" ) nullisomy - a homolgous pair is entirely absent monosomy - only one member of a homologous pair is current trisomy - three duplicates of a homologous chromosome are present tetrasomy - four copies of a homologous chromosome are current etc.Aneuploidies can an outcome from nondisjunction - three copies of a homologous chromosome space present- 2 homologs migrate to the same brand-new gamete, leave the various other one "blank" lagging chromosome - three copies of a homologous chromosome are current - one member of a homologous pair is not separated into the newly forming gamete at the same price as the rest, and also is left out of the nucleus once the nuclear membrane forms.Autosomal aneuploidies are far more devastating 보다 sex c"some abnormalities; the latter are regularly survivable, and also some persons through sex c"some abnormalities have the right to lead totally normal lives and also produce common offspring. ploidy - the number of complete chromosome sets in a cell haploid - one complete collection of chromosomes (in humans, one collection comprises 23 chromosomes) diploid - two finish sets the chromosomes (in humans, 2 sets that 23 chromosomes) triploid - three finish sets that chromosomes tetraploid - three finish sets the chromosomes etc.Because many eukaryotic organisms are diploid, the condition of having more than two complete sets of chromosomes is known, generically, as polyploidy