To describe the physical properties of ionic compounds.

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The figure below shows just a few examples that the color and also brilliance the naturally emerging ionic crystals. The regular and also orderly arrangement of ions in the decision lattice is responsible for the miscellaneous shapes of these crystals, while change metal ions offer rise come the colors.

Figure 3.6.1: In nature, the ordered arrangement of ionic solids offers rise to beautiful crystals. (A) Amethyst - a type of quartz, SiO2, who purple color comes native iron ions. (B) Cinnabar - the primary ore of mercury is mercury (II) sulfide, HgS (C) Azurite - a copper mineral, Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. (D) Vanadinite - the primary ore of vanadium, Pb3(VO4)3Cl.

Melting Points

Because of the plenty of simultaneous attractions between cations and also anions the occur, ionic crystal lattices are really strong. The procedure of melting an ionic compound requires the addition of big amounts of power in order to break all of the ionic bonds in the crystal. Because that example, salt chloride has a melting temperature of around 800oC. As a comparison, the molecular compound water melts at 0 °C.


Ionic compound are typically hard, but brittle. Why? the takes a large amount of mechanical force, such as striking a crystal v a hammer, to pressure one class of ion to transition relative to its neighbor. However, as soon as that happens, the brings ion of the very same charge beside each other (see below). The repulsive forces between like-charged ions cause the decision to shatter. As soon as an ionic decision breaks, it often tends to execute so follow me smooth planes since of the regular plan of the ions.

Figure 3.6.2: (A) The salt chloride crystal is shown in two dimensions. (B) once struck through a hammer, the negatively-charged chloride ions are required near each other and also the repulsive force reasons the decision to shatter.


Another characteristic residential or commercial property of ionic link is your electrical conductivity. The figure below shows three experiments in which two electrodes that are linked to a light bulb are put in beakers include three different substances.

Figure 3.6.3: (A) Distilled water does not conduct electricity. (B) A solid ionic compound additionally does not conduct. (C) A water solution of one ionic link conducts electrical power well.

In the first beaker, distilled water does no conduct a current since water is a molecular compound. In the second beaker, solid sodium chloride also does no conduct a current. Despite being ionic and also thus composed of fee particles, the solid decision lattice does not enable the ion to move between the electrodes. Mobile charged particles are compelled for the circuit to it is in complete and the light pear to light up. In the 3rd beaker, the NaCl has been dissolved into the distilled water. Now the decision lattice has actually been broken apart and the individual confident and an adverse ions deserve to move. Cations move to one electrode, while anions move to the other, permitting electricity to flow (see figure below). Melting an ionic compound likewise frees the ion to conduct a current. Ionic compounds conduct an electric existing when melted or liquified in water. The dissolution of ionic link in water will be disputed in ar 9.3.

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Figure 3.6.4: In an ionic solution, the A+ ions migrate toward the negative electrode, if the B− ions move toward the confident electrode.

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