Appendix J

Rehearsals

A rehearsal is the act or procedure of practicing an action in preparation for the actual performance of the action. Rehearsing vital combat actions enables participants to become familiar v the operation and to translate the reasonably dry recitation the the tactical arrangement into intuitive impression. This visual impression help them orient themselves to both their environment and to various other units throughout the execution the the operation. Moreover, the repeat of combat tasks during the rehearsal pipeline a lasting mental photo of the sequence of crucial actions in ~ the operation. Rehearsals are performed at all force levels. However, the discussions in this appendix emphasis on the brigade level since the an easy procedures space the exact same at all levels.

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REHEARSAL TYPES

There room five types of rehearsals. They space the confirmation brief, backbrief, an unified arms rehearsal, support rehearsal, and battle drill or SOP rehearsal. Each form of rehearsal achieves a specific an outcome and has a specific place in the MDMP time line. The objectives of these rehearsals are:

Confirmation brief. The confirmation short is regularly performed by a subordinate leader automatically after receiving any type of instructions, OPORD, FRAGO, etc. Low grade leaders quick the greater commander on:

– Their understanding of his intent.

– Their certain task and purpose.

– The relationship between their unit"s mission and the mission of various other units.

Backbrief. The backbrief is normally performed throughout the MDMP. This rehearsal allows the commander to clear up his intent beforehand in the subordinate"s tactical estimate process. The higher commander uses backbriefs to:

– Identify troubles in his concept of operation.

– Identify problems in subordinate unit commander"s concept of operations.

Determine how a low grade intends to achieve the mission.

Combined eight rehearsal. The combined arms rehearsal is normally conducted by a maneuver unit headquarters and performed ~ the subordinate units have issued your OPORD. This rehearsal ensures:

– The subordinate devices plans space synchronized through the other units in the organization.

– The plans of all subordinate commander"s will certainly properly attain the will of the higher commander.

Support rehearsal. Assistance rehearsals are generally performed within the frame of a solitary or limited number of BOS. Examples include the FS rehearsal or the CSS rehearsal. Assistance rehearsals are performed transparent the MDMP timeline. Although these rehearsals differ slightly through BOS, they attain the very same result:

– certain the soldiers responsible because that a particular BOS deserve to support the greater commander"s plan.

– Ensure all assigned missions will be performed.

– Synchronize the particular BOS support plan with the practice plan.

Battle drill rehearsal or SOP rehearsal. The objective of a fight drill or SOP rehearsal is to ensure all participants understand a technique or a specific collection of procedures. This rehearsal is perform by every echelons, yet most generally at platoon, squad, and section levels. These rehearsals room performed transparent the MDMP timeline. This type of rehearsal is not minimal to published fight drills. It can be the rehearsal of a TOC shift change, problem breach lane-marking SOP, plot a POL section takes at a ROM site or a section action in the defense the a radar site.

REHEARSAL techniques

Techniques because that performing rehearsals are limited only by the resourcefulness of the unit. Typically six methods are used:

Full dress.

Reduced force.

Terrain model.

Sketch map.

Map.

Radio.

These 6 techniques variety from substantial preparation, in time and also resources, to minimal preparation. Together they room listed, every takes a decreasing quantity of time and also resources come prepare and also conduct. Every rehearsal technique provides different degrees of knowledge for the participants and has various security risks. Number J-1 reflects the rehearsal techniques in their loved one positions, considering: time, resourcing, OPSEC, participation, and also level of knowledge gained.

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Figure J-1. Benefits and also Resourcing for Rehearsal Techniques

Considerations for these six rehearsal approaches are discussed based upon time, echelon, operational defense (OPSEC), and terrain.

FULL dress REHEARSAL

The complete dress rehearsal produces the most comprehensive understanding that the mission. It involves every soldier and also system participating in the operation. If possible, units have to conduct full dress rehearsal under the same conditions, weather, time that day, terrain, etc., together the force will encounter throughout the yes, really operation. This may include the use of live ammunition. The full dress rehearsal is the most difficult to accomplish, especially at higher command levels.Considerations for the full dress rehearsal include:

Time. Complete dress rehearsals are normally the many time spend of every the rehearsal techniques. In ~ the BDE and also TF levels, for sure you do not encroach low grade unit timelines by scheduling a full dress rehearsal at your very own convenience. For smaller units (company and also below), full dress rehearsals room the most effective method for ensuring anyone in the procedure understands their component of the mission.

Technique. Instantly prior come the complete dress rehearsal, units might think about holding a lessened force rehearsal come ensure the leader thoroughly recognize the mission. Return this might look favor it will require more time, the time invested with simply the leaders will ensure the complete dress rehearsal goes smoothly and efficiently.

Echelon. A low grade unit have the right to perform a complete dress rehearsal as component of a larger unit"s lessened force rehearsal.

OPSEC. The movement of a large body the the force will absolutely attract attention from the enemy. Units must build a plan to for sure the rehearsal is safeguarded from the eyes of the enemy.

Terrain. Terrain monitoring for the full dress method can be challenging if the is not planned into the initial range of forces. The rehearsal area need to be identified, secured, cleared and also maintained throughout the rehearsal process. Throughout offensive operations, a second set that graphics should be emerged for the rehearsal to winter the yes, really plan. During the defense, the rehearsing unit may already be occupying the terrain, and also a second set that graphics may not it is in necessary.

REDUCED force REHEARSALThis rehearsal method normally takes less time and also resources than a complete dress rehearsal since it entails only the unit"s and subordinate unit"s key leaders. Terrain needs are the very same as for a full dress rehearsal, just the number of participants changes. The commander first decides the level that leader authorized desired. The selected leaders climate rehearse the plan while traversing the really or choose terrain. Leaders often use this rehearsal to practice the fire control measures in one engagement area. However, as during full dress rehearsal, it is very susceptible to foe combat intelligence activities. The decreased force rehearsal enables the management to practice the mission before moving to the complete dress rehearsal.Considerations for the diminished force rehearsal include:

Time. The diminished force rehearsal normally requires much less time 보다 the complete dress technique. This is great way for smaller sized units come ensure leaders know all compelled missions before moving to a complete dress rehearsal. However, think about the low grade unit"s time table prior to scheduling the rehearsal.

Echelon. A small, low grade unit have the right to perform a full dress rehearsal as part of a larger unit"s lessened force rehearsal.

OPSEC. This rehearsal is no as most likely to end up being an OPSEC trouble as the complete dress due to the fact that the rehearsing unit is smaller. However, the variety of radio transmissions remains about the very same as the full dress and also must it is in considered.

Terrain. Terrain management for the reduced force rehearsal deserve to be simply as difficult as the full dress. The rehearsal area must be identified, secured, cleared and also maintained throughout the rehearsal process. As with the full dress rehearsal, a second graphic may need to be developed mirroring the actual arrangement but modified come fit the rehearsal terrain.

TERRAIN design REHEARSAL

This rehearsal takes less time and fewer sources than the key leader rehearsal and is the most popular technique. The commander decides on the level the leader involvement, and also then has actually a scale terrain design of the area of to work constructed. Precise terrain model can assist subordinate leader visualize the battle and their commanders" intentions. When possible, the command should place the terrain version where that overlooks the actual terrain that the area the operations. However, if the instance requires more security, the terrain model deserve to be placed on the turning back slope in ~ walking street of a point overlooking the area that operations. The model"s orientation must coincide v the yes, really orientation the the terrain to assist participants orient to the really area that operations. The dimension of the terrain model can vary from where symbols are relocated to stand for units come a large model on which the participants deserve to walk. A big model helps reinforce participants" late of family member positions of units on the really terrain.Considerations for the terrain model rehearsal:

Time. The most time-consuming part of the an approach can be the construction of the terrain model. Systems must have a clear SOP stating that builds it, just how it is built, and also when it is built to ensure the model is accurate, huge enough, and also in sufficient detail to rehearse the mission.

Echelon. Terrain design rehearsals can quickly involve numerous different types of leaders. This, an unified with the efficient use the time, provides it a an extremely effective multi-echelon technique.

OPSEC. This rehearsal can become an OPSEC difficulty if the area about the rehearsal website is no secured. The arsenal of commanders and their vehicles can bring attention native the enemy. Upon completion of the rehearsal, ensure the terrain design is sanitized.

Terrain. Terrain administration is not as an overwhelming as the previous techniques. The place of the site should be simple to uncover for the friendly commanders, yet invisible to the enemy. The optimum place is overlooking the terrain on which the mission will certainly be performed.

SKETCH MAP REHEARSAL

Units can use this an approach almost everywhere day or night. The steps are the exact same as because that a terrain design rehearsal, except the commander provides a map out in location of a model. Sketches must be huge enough for every participants to view as every subordinate walks with the interactive linguistic execution that the operation. Units relocate symbols to stand for their maneuver and also location on the sketch. This technique is really effective because that confirmation briefs and also backbriefs.Considerations for the lay out map rehearsal:

OPSEC. As with the terrain model, this rehearsal can become an OPSEC trouble if it is performed outside and also the area around the rehearsal site is no secured. Another concern is the the repertoire of commanders and their vehicles can carry attention indigenous the enemy.

Terrain. The optimum location is overlooking the terrain on which the mission will certainly be performed.

MAP REHEARSAL

The map rehearsal steps are comparable to the map out map rehearsal, except the commander offers a map and operation overlay the the same scale together being provided to plan and control the operation.Considerations because that the map rehearsal:

Time. The most time-consuming part is the rehearsal itself. The setup because that this rehearsal is generally the easiest due to the fact that it just requires maps and also the current operational graphics.

OPSEC. Similar to the terrain model technique, this might be an OPSEC trouble if the is performed outside and also the area around the rehearsal site is not secured. An additional concern is the collection of commanders and their vehicles can carry attention native the enemy.

Terrain. The optimum location is overlooking the terrain on i beg your pardon the mission will certainly be performed.

RADIO REHEARSALThe commander and also his employee conduct radio rehearsals by interactively and also verbally executing critical portions of the procedure over established communications networks. This is accomplished in a basic sequence of occasions that the command establishes. Due to the fact that of the evident dangers connected with utilizing this details rehearsal, just the essential, most-critical portions of the operation are rehearsed. When used, these rehearsals include all communications facilities and also equipment crucial to conduct the actual section of the operation. To be effective, every participants must have actually working communications equipment and a copy that the OPORD and overlays. The TOC have the right to rehearse tracking the fight simultaneously. Considerations for the radio rehearsal:

Time. This method can be really time consuming if the unit go not have actually a clean SOP for performing this rehearsal. Making use of this technique requires all devices to have operational interactions systems.

OPSEC. As with the complete dress and key leader rehearsals, this rehearsal can come to be an OPSEC problem because of the volume of the radio transmissions and also potential deteriorate of information through opponent radio monitoring. A different set of frequencies need to be used to defend the ones to be used for the operation. The usage of wire systems is one option however does no exercise the radio systems, i beg your pardon is the solid point of this rehearsal technique.

SCRIPTING and CONDUCTING THE REHEARSAL

An effective technique for managing the rehearsals is to usage a script. The manuscript keeps the rehearsal ~ above track and serves together the checklist to ensure that all BOS are represented and also all outstanding problems are addressed during the rehearsal. The script has four major parts:

The agenda.

The an answer sequence.

Unit actions checklist (friendly and enemy).

Sequence that events.

AGENDA

Rehearse making use of the tools you will certainly use as soon as fighting the battle: the OPORD, synchronization matrix, and also the DST. Use these devices to journey the rehearsal and to also help keep the rehearsal focused. Throughout fire support rehearsals, usage the fire support execution matrix. These products can be provided as a rehearsal agenda from firm through brigade. If time is short, use the agenda together the menu to pick events to be rehearsed. Since these items room issued to the subordinates during the OPORD, subordinates are more prepared for the rehearsal due to the fact that they know which events will be rehearsed.

RESPONSE SEQUENCE

Ensure the players respond in a logical sequence. This sequence must be established prior to the rehearsal. One sequence can be through BOS; another might be by unit together the organization is deployed from front to rear. Whatever sequence girlfriend use, it need to be determined prior to the rehearsal. Posting the solution sequence in ~ the rehearsal website is helpful.

UNIT action CHECKLIST

Friendly. Each player uses a standard layout to explain his unit or employee action. Usage of this kind of checklist ensures that all far-reaching points room covered quickly. This also helps rise the understanding of the other players due to the fact that they room able to an essential on a common sequence the information. Effectively used, the checklist permits the rehearsal to move quickly and also improves comprehension.

Enemy. The opponent force have to be depicted effectively and also quickly without distracting indigenous the rehearsal. A technique is to establish a unit action checklist prefer that of the trusted units, but from the opponent perspective.

SEQUENCE of EVENTS

The adhering to paragraphs provide a generic sequence of events for a rehearsal. Although emerged for a linked arms rehearsal, this sequence have the right to be used for FS rehearsals with a couple of modifications. This instance can be used for BDE-, BN/TF-, or CO/TM-level rehearsals and will support any rehearsal technique.

Step 1. Ground rules.

– call roll; begin ON TIME.

– quickly review her SOP to check out if you have brand-new players at the rehearsal.

– for sure a recorder is ready.

– State the agenda being used (OPORD, synchronization procession or DST) and the rehearsal type.

– carry out an orientation to the rehearsal devices (terrain version or visible an essential terrain, unit icons, etc.) and also important graphic control measures.

– point out the point in the operation that the rehearsal will start. One event prior come the an initial event gift rehearsed permits for suitable deployment that forces.

– Ensure everyone understands the components of the setup to it is in rehearsed.

Step 2. Deploy the enemy. Deploy the enemy on the rehearsal product, as they would look in ~ the rehearsal begin point. Restating the enemy devices should no be required.

Step 3. Deploy the friendly. Deploy the friendly pressures (including adjacent units) in ~ the rehearsal begin point. Together friendly systems are at first posted come the rehearsal product, they have to state their:

– Task and purpose, job organization and strength.

– part units may need to brief their low grade unit positions at the begin time, as well as any certain points of emphasis to incorporate FARPs, and ROM.

Step 4. Advance the enemy. Start advancing the adversary on his most most likely course of action (situational template) together it comes to the suggest on the execution matrix. Since in step 2 the opponent was deployed as much as the suggest the rehearsal will start, the enemy proceeds to maneuver indigenous there. Depiction should be definitive, tying adversary actions to specific terrain or friendly units" actions. Specific portrayal the the situational template emerged for the staff wargaming process must be communicated. The enemy is uncooperative, however not invincible.

Step 5. Decision point. Upon perfect of the adversary action, problems must it is in assessed to recognize if a decision point has to be reached. These are the decision point out taken directly from the DST.

– in ~ a decision point: together decision points space reached, the XO states the problems for success. The commander claims his decision to proceed on the present course or pick a branch.

– If the commander decides to continue the present COA, the next occasion from the matrix is stated and also the friendly units are progressed (Step 2).

– If a branch is selected, the commander claims why he has selected the branch. The first event of the branch is stated, and the rehearsal proceeds from that suggest until all occasions of the branch are rehearsed.

Not in ~ a Decision Point: if the unit is no at a decision suggest and no at the wanted end state, then the rehearsal proceeds with the XO stating the next event on the synchronization matrix, and also friendly units are progressed (Step 2). Use the predetermined sequence as units continue to act out and verbalize their actions.

Step 6. Finish state of the branch is reached. End the initial phase of the rehearsal after the wanted end state of the COA or the branch is achieved. In an assault this will usually be ~ above the objective after consolidation and also casualty evacuation are complete. In the defense, this will commonly be after ~ the decisive action such together the appointment of the reserve, the final destruction or withdrawal of the enemy, and casualty evacuation space complete.

Step 7. Recock. After the early phase, "recock" come the instance at the first decision point. The XO have to state the criteria for a decision to change the plan. Assume this criteria have been met and also then re-fight the hit from that allude forward, all the way until the desired end state is attained. Complete any coordination come ensure understanding and also requirements room met; record any changes. Go to the next decision point and assume that the criteria have actually been met. Repeat the previous measures until every decision points and also branches have been rehearsed.

Step 8. Follow-up and also coordination. As little issues arise throughout the rehearsal, they space recorded. At the finish of the rehearsal, the recorder claims these worries for review and also final decision. This ensures the flow of the rehearsal is not interrupted. "War stopping" concerns raised anytime throughout the rehearsal have to be automatically addressed. This coordination is among the vital points of the rehearsals. If that is no done immediately, it will be daunting to get the indigenous to every the players later.

STAFF assistance ACTIONSThe employee updates the DSM/DST and provides the to every leader prior to departure. The targeting officer and also radar ar leader will certainly be personally affiliated in to update TA related products. These encompass input come the RS&S plan, radar zones, cueing agents, triggers and also radar movement and also positioning. This is the last opportunity for subordinates to identify and also resolve dangling issues. Make sure all coordination done at the rehearsal is clearly understood by all players and also captured through the recorder. All alters to the published order are, in effect, linguistic FRAGOs. As quickly as possible, the battle staff need to collect the verbal FRAGOs right into a written readjust to the order.

BRIGADE FIRE assistance REHEARSAL

Fire support rehearsals are vital for ensuring the synchronization that the fire support setup with the system of maneuver. Technological fire regulate details must be addressed in the DS FA battalion and FA technological rehearsals. The fire assistance rehearsal should focus on maximizing the capability of the fire support system to assistance the plan and attain the commander"s intent.Although this is a FS rehearsal, the brigade must be closely affiliated to certain synchronization of the FS arrangement with the maneuver plan. Anytime possible, the brigade commander must participate as well. Usually the brigade sends out the XO, S-3, S-4, S-2, engineer, FSO, ALO, targeting officer, military aviation LNO, forward support battalion (FSB) representative, and the striker platoon leader and also strikers, if available. Crucial representatives native the DS FA battalion include the commander, S3, S2, FDO, and radar ar leader. From the maneuver TFs, the commander, if available, S-3, FSO, enlightenment platoon leader, and also mortar platoon leader. The DS FA battalion commander typically conducts this rehearsal for the brigade commander. The brigade FSO and the targeting officer aid him.The FS rehearsal normally lasts around 1 come 11/2 hours. There is hardly ever time to practice every target. Rehearse at a minimum the priority targets. The objective of the FS rehearsal is come ensure synchronization of the FS effort within the unit and to ensure the the FS arrangement supports the commander"s intent. FS rehearsals should take place prior to the merged arms rehearsal. Usually the an approach selected because that the rehearsal is the radio technique, return the terrain model technique works as well.

REHEARSAL SCRIPT

Step 1. - Agenda. Usage the fire support execution matrix. Usually prior to the rehearsal, the DS FA battalion FDO will announce the brigade consolidated target perform by number, grid and any one-of-a-kind instruction for the targets. Establish the response sequence early, and post where all participants have the right to see it. See figure J-2. If the FS rehearsal occurs prior to the an unified arms rehearsal, then selection of branches to practice is done by the FSCOORD. If it wake up after the merged arms rehearsal, climate the sequence the branches are rehearsed mirrors the of the proceeding merged arms rehearsal.

Friendly Unit Actions

What is the task and also purpose of the action or target?

When are the conditions or trigger met?

Where is the target, and where is the observer location?

Who is responsible for the target, the backup, i m sorry radio net and also backup?

What space the wanted effects?

number J-2. Familiar Unit Actions

Step 2 - Deploy the enemy. Knowledge update as required.

Step 3 - Deploy the friendly. The FSCOORD claims the FSCM in effect at the beginning point the the rehearsal and provides last-minute guidance.

Step 4 - development the enemy. The DS FA battalion S2 and also targeting officer advance the foe one critical event at a time. As soon as the S2 finishes relenten the event, all fire pendant execute their part of the fire support plan triggered by the action.

Example scenario:

– The adhering to is a deliberate strike example. The response sequence is front to rear; several units to be left out for brevity. The succession is: striker, TF Mech, TF 1-1, . . . ALO, . . . And S2. The DS FA battalion S2 states: the is now H+6. SBF Mech has been established; every three foe platoon positions space being hidden by smoke and suppressed by SBF Mech. TF 1-1 is moving on Axis Slam simply approaching PP1.

– The striker team would respond: This is striker team 2; i am backup for TGT AE0005 vicinity NA123456. TF 1-1"s closure on PP1 is the trigger to fire. I will observe the TGT native vicinity NA 345678 and call it on FS net. . . . The alternate technique is. . . .The TGT function is. . . .The wanted effects are. . . . Break. . . .FDC, this is striker team 2 fire TGT AE0005, over. The FDO would certainly repeat the speak to for fire and also issue a post to observer to incorporate time the flight. The observer would end the mission.

– The TF Mech FSO would respond: No Action.

– The TF1-1 FSO would respond: This is TF 1-1 FSO; ns am the priority for TGT AE0005. Ours closure on PP1 is the cause to fire TGT AE0005, NA 123456. Alpha Team FIST will certainly observe the TGT native vicinity NA 234567 and also call it on FS net. . . .The alternate method is. . . .The TGT function is. . . . The wanted effects are. . . .Break. . . .FDC, this is TF1-1 FSO fire TGT AE0005, over. The FDO would repeat the call for fire and issue a article to observer to include time that flight. If the Alpha Team FIST is participating, climate he would fire the TGT rather of the TF FSO. The observer would finish the mission.

– The ALO would certainly state: This is BDE ALO, TF 1-1 closure top top PP1 is my trigger. 4 A-10s through Mavericks room at IP Cheese. The ALO would proceed with magnetic heading from IP come TGT, TGT description, location, and elevation, method of marking place of friendlies, egress, time indigenous IP come target. Any SEAD or ACA alters in assistance of CAS need to be rehearsed through the CAS mission.

– The S2 or targeting officer states: radar section 1 , this is S2/targeting officer. TF 1-1 closure ~ above PP1 is mine trigger, call for fire zone number 1, and an essential friendly zones 4, 5, and also 6 room in effect now. Cue radar schedule Jane, 12 minutes, over.

– The radar ar leader would certainly respond: S2/targeting officer, this is radar ar leader, contact for fire zone number 1, and vital friendly zones 4, 5, and also 6 room in effect. Cue radar schedule Jane, 12 minutes, out.

For each target practice grid location, create point, engagement criteria, primary and also backup observer and also communications method, technique of engagement and also attack guidance. Ensure the DS battalion S3 gift the battery activity plans and also out-of-action cycles. Practice the radar target handoff and include clearing the fires in ~ the TF level if TF FSOs are involved. The rehearsal the priority counterfire targets is required when rehearsing priority targets. Have the radar ar leader insert one or 2 acquisitions every phase of the rehearsal.

Steps 5 - 8 are conducted as previously discussed.

RESULTS

This rehearsal ensures the validity the the FS plan. That illustrates why fires are needed in relation to certain maneuver events and what they space intended come accomplish. The crosswalks observers through shooters and ties them come a problem or event on the battlefield. The ensures that FS performs the assigned EFSTs and meets the commander"s intent. Once properly performed, the rehearsal techniques the redundancy of observers and also nets by having both the backup and primary shoot the targets. The FS arrangement is validated with the scheme of maneuver, the commander"s intent, and attack guidance. It ensures the obstacle plan is coordinated with the FS plan and both support the exercise plan. Lastly it ensures the manage measures for protecting and controlling aerial and ground pressures are in place, integrated, and understood by all.BRIGADE merged ARMS REHEARSALAfter receiving an OPORD, low grade leaders need to be afforded the vital time to complete their very own planning before a parent unit"s combined arms rehearsal. This planning home window provides time for an important mission analysis, course-of-action development and analysis, and OPORD publishing. This ensures subordinate commanders have time come assign duty for mentioned tasks and resolve problems discovered in the parental commander"s OPORD.The commander, XO, and also primary staff, the low grade unit commanders and their S3, targeting officer, S2, and also FSO have to attend. Other pivotal players in the unit mission have to attend as well. These include the normal leadership slice in addition to units operation in direct support such as aviation units and strikers. Whenever possible, flank units and also the greater unit have to be invite to attend. Once time is short, attendance might be modified.Usually, there is poor time to rehearse the whole operation. About 1 come 1 1/2 hours is a good rule yet is METT-TC dependant. If too lot time is consumed, different BOS assistance rehearsals and subordinate unit merged arms rehearsals will lack sufficient time. Ensure you prioritize those crucial events that demand leader visualization of your synchronization. Rehearse the most crucial event first, and, as time permits, continue to rehearse succeeding events. Subordinates should arrive prepared to rehearse the prioritized events.REHEARSAL script

Agenda. Use the DST and also the synchronization matrix to facilitate the rehearsal. Establish the solution sequence prior to the rehearsal starts. Write-up it whereby all participants can see it.

Sequence the Events. Usage the steps disputed in the basic discussion around rehearsals.

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Rehearsal activities. The FSO, targeting officer, strikers and radar section leader practice the very same task, purpose and actions because that the events rehearsed throughout the fire assistance rehearsal. Combine these activities in the an unified arms rehearsal ensures that all fire support and also target acquisition activities are synchronized through the maneuver plan.