Generous support for the Chicago Symphony Orchestra Association’s media portal is detailed by the Walter and Karla Goldschmidt Foundation.

You are watching: Who is the father of the symphony


*

Even though music scholars agree the Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) was critical innovator, he has not always received the complete measure that esteem the he deserves.

The Chicago Symphony Orchestra will provide audiences a possibility to reconsider the composer and his musical influence when it spotlights three works programmed for the rest of the 2017-18 season: his Symphony No. 89 on in march 15-17 (with Riccardo Muti, conductor), Symphony No. 103 (Drumroll) on June 7-9 (Giovanni Antonini, conductor) and Cherubini’s Chant sur la mort de Joseph Haydn on June 21-24 (Muti, conductor).


*

Caryl Clark


Ahead of this concerts, Sounds and also Stories interviewed Caryl Clark, professor the music background and society at the university of Toronto, about the legacy of Haydn and the functions the CSO will perform this season. The commissioning editor of the Cambridge Companion to Haydn (Cambridge college Press, 2005), she recently submitted the manuscript for the Cambridge Haydn Encyclopedia, which she is co-editing and also due come be released at the end of 2018.

Can Haydn be defined as an underappreciated composer?

Obviously, he is at the height of mine list. That is mine go-to guy for all kinds the things. Yet I would say out there in the basic sphere that things, and also even among my music students below at the college of Toronto, Mozart will be up there, and they’re anywhere Beethoven, absolutely, they love Beethoven. Haydn is sort of that weak third member of the so-called Viennese timeless style. I tell them the without Haydn, we might not have had actually Mozart and also Beethoven and also those iterations the they are.

In fact, that whole patina the the so-called Viennese classic style, the is a late 19th-century German musicology invention. And also in that configuration, you’re going to have a very Italianate Mozart through a singing style and melody and also a really Germanic, serious, an effective and revolutionary Beethoven, and Haydn is walking to acquire left out of it since he is going come come throughout as the lightweight of castle intellectually and also whatever. And also that’s an old myth that we need to obtain rid of.

In fact, if you take it the whole Viennese classic style, yes nothing classic around it. Eliminate Beethoven indigenous the equation entirely and look at it from a pre-1800s perspective, and also it’s Italianate the we have actually both in the Mozart round — nobody will certainly argue v that — and, then, I indicate that it’s in reality there in Haydn as well. Us just have actually not come to appreciate his operas or his comic genius, which the writes into his symphonies, but the derivation of all of that is comic opera coming out of Italy. We just really require to change the lens the looking at this guy completely and climate we come to appreciate him in another way.

Has Haydn to be unfairly overshadowed through Mozart?

Well, unfairly? I absolutely don’t want to take it anything away from Mozart. I deserve to go to view The marital relationship of Figaro and absolutely loss for every gag and see something new every time, and the very same with Così pan tutte and Don Giovanni. And they space fun come teach. There is so much there for everybody.

And we’ve just never obtained that excited around Haydn. We’ve placed this dichotomy up — Haydn to be the one who worked in the patronage system and also didn’t have his complimentary intellectual thoughts and also wrote the music he was asked come do. We want to know the freelance composer, Mozart, and we kind of belittle patronage system and also the ancien régime that Haydn worked under. However I would imply that throughout the whole 18th century and into the 19th century, aristocrats still called all the shots. Mozart was not writing music the his cost-free whim. He, too, to be responsible come patrons. He simply didn’t have actually one continual employer. Therefore it was a lot more complex system 보다 we generally think about.

Does the popularity of Haydn’s music ebb and flow? and also if so, where room we in the cycle?

So, us went through this huge historical-performance movement. We’re walk to record every symphony that Haydn on historical instruments if us can. You know, we’ve shed Christopher Hogwood and also Nikolaus Harnoncourt , people who were really developmental players in bringing these functions to life in a new way, thinking about tempi and also performance spaces and playing styles and even just methods the conducting. And I would imply that the next generation is really prepared to be even much more experimental about how they are thinking around these kinds of sounds. I would certainly say we room poised because that a actual upswing again.

What space the many striking features of Haydn’s music? You discussed the comic aspect already.

Yes, the comic aspect. That gets defined as his wit and humor. However I think it is as well lame to say simply that. What you really need to understand is exactly how much of that comedy and also wit is installed in the important music the is accompanying mid-century comic opera. Italian opera buffa is the ar in i m sorry this starts. Out of the background, if friend take far the vocal writing and listen to the means that the orchestra puts together recurring phrases and also what not, the is the generative sound because that symphonies in a most this period. And also maybe there will be an instrumental line, a first violin or one oboe or a flute or something, that will make girlfriend say, “There is the vocal line. We’ve simply heard a snippet the a melody that can have words come it.” but this is clearly self-standing symphonic music. It’s as if we need to start knowledge his comedy as not being rooted in simply the way you place musical jokes within critical music however stem the really ago to theatrical music. So it’s a deeper expertise of this comedy.

Some that the many salient features of Haydn’s music space the ways it really division the limit of the type of straitjacket in i m sorry we placed him. It is much more comprehensive and much more open and has a lot fuller and rich dimension to it than we have enabled for.

How necessary was Haydn come the development of the symphony? 

The symphonic creating was all across his career, and also the point again is the it is not simply so-called pure important music. Every among them seems to have either a hoax or an within understanding. It’s together if they room written for the moment. We commonly call Symphony No. 45, from 1772, the Farewell Symphony , due to the fact that of the the renowned story the the musicians are tired. What was claimed to be a summer home has been prolonged to eight, nine months of the year, and also they’re a long means from families back in Eisenstadt, and they require to acquire home. So the idea is that you create a item that will phase the shutting down of her ensemble, basically, and also their exit. Virtually every symphony has some kind of story you deserve to put behind it in that an extremely way. Again, they’re really theatrical. They have a place and also a moment and also a time. They’re gestural. They speak come a community of agents and actors. He’s not creating to simply write another stylistic item in his pantheon of output. He’s composing for specific people, players and actors in particular times and also places, and they are having actually a lot of fun.

Clark’s thoughts about the Haydn-related works the CSO will perform:

March 15-17, Haydn, Symphony No. 89 in F significant (1787)

This rarely heard work was composed after Haydn’s much more famous Paris symphonies, a set of 6 works indigenous 1785-86 that significantly boosted the composer’s international reputation. The 2nd and 4th movements the this symphony are based on sections from his Concerto for 2 Lire Organizzate in F major (1786). The concerto was one of six commissioned by Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, who was make the efforts to recruit Haydn as his court composer. The now-obsolete lira organizzata, a kind of hurdy-gurdy, was the sovereign’s favorite instrument.

“If you’ve gained something the is this good,” Clark said, “why not re-use this material? It supplied to be called self-borrowing, but I think that is also limiting a term. It’s just that friend haven’t fully unpacked the potential the is resonant in ~ the music material. It doesn’t have anything to say about how deprived you space of musical genius because that invention and also originality. If anything, it suggests that i can find even much more things to do with this material, so i’m going to re-use it. Therefore it becomes a device for future creativity and also investment.”

June 7-9, Haydn, Symphony No. 103 in E-flat Major, Drumroll (1795)

The 11th of the composer’s 12 London symphonies, this work-related famously opens with a lengthy roll top top the timpani. “How unexplained is that?” Clark said. “It’s all about: exactly how do you lure attention once you don’t have actually the concert standards we carry out today and also the ability to dim the lights such together you have the right to signal that something is ready to begin?” She detailed that in Haydn’s time, over there was little of the etiquette through which audiences are familiar now. There was, for example, no conductor, so over there was no the formal entrance usually linked with his or she arrival onstage and the accompanying applause.

See more: What Is The Square Root Of 250 In Simplest Radical Form? Square Root Of 250

June 21-24, Cherubini, singing sur la mort de Joseph Haydn (1805)

This job-related was not created after Haydn’s fatality in 1809, as could be an alleged from the title, however after one erroneous report of the composer’s end in 1804. Luigi Cherubini, an Italian composer whom Beethoven organized in high regard, was in Paris at the time Haydn debuted his symphonies over there in 1785-86. Clark suspects the Cherubini heard several of them and recognized the Italian influences on the Austrian composer’s writing. Listening come the Chant recently, she to be struck by aspects that room reminiscent that Haydn’s an excellent oratorios, The Creation and The Seasons.