12.3.1 Write and also describe the neutralization reactoin that takes place between acids and bases.

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12.4.1 describe the pH scale and use it to classify substances as acidic, basic, or neutral, by utilizing their molecule formula or structure.

12.4.2 calculation the pH that a systems from the hydronium concentration.

12.5.1 analyze a titration experiement to recognize molarity, mole of a solute, and also volume that a solution, and relate to a neutralization reaction.


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A NEUTRALization reaction is one that reacts an acid v a basic to form NEUTRAL products. Neutralization has actually occured as soon as there room the exact same amount of H+ ion from the mountain as there are OH- ion from the base.

Neutralization: H+ = OH-

Alka seltzer functions to eliminate stomach sick by decreasing the mountain of her stomach acid, which is the resource of the pain, just by presenting a base. However which base? A significant ingredient in alka seltzer tablet computers is sodium bicarbonate, a basic otherwise recognized as baking soda. Together the base neutralizes the acid, two neutral commodities are formed: water and salt.

This is true that EVERY neutralization reaction! Water and also salt will ALWAYS type when one acid and also a base react with eachother. Water forms as a product everytime since the H+ that is donated indigenous the acid and the OH- the is donated indigenous the basic bond with each other to type H2O.

Whatever is left end after the H+ and also OH-bond together becomes the salt, the 2nd product that neutralization.


We deserve to use neutralization reaction to aid us identify the unknown concentration of one of two people the acid or the base. There is a formula the we use to mathematically calculation this unknown concentration based on our result in the titration experiment...

To collection up a titration experiment we require to have several an important pieces that equiptment... We need to use a burette so the we deserve to read the volume that the base the is gift used, the stop cock so the we can determine exactly how slow or rapid the base comes the end of the burette, the burette clamp and also ring stand to host the burette in place over the erlenmeyer flask, an erlenmeyer flask to host the acid below the burette and also a pH indicator. The indicator we"ll be using in class is called phenolphthalein and it is a liquid pH indicator. It helps us identify the pH of the equipment we have by turning clear in acids and also pink in bases. Due to the fact that we desire to discover the exact point in time where the two room neutralized... Our score in this experiment is to add enough basic to the mountain to begin to revolve the systems in the erlenmeyer flask a really light pink. Keep in mind that the phenolphthalein indicator is included to the acid in the erlenmeyer flask. Watch the image below for the ideal set-up:

Now the doesn"t actually matter whether the mountain or the basic is in the burette or the erlenmeyer flask yet in the titration experiment the we execute in class we"ll be putting a sodium hydroxide base, NaOH, into the burette and also acetic acid, H4C2O2, into the erlenmeyer flask.

Once the set-up is complete we deserve to start titrating. We"ll very first measure the volume the the basic in the burette therefore that us know how much we"re starting with. Note that burettes read various than beakers and graduated cylinders... The optimal starts at zero and also then the numbers increase as you relocate down the burette. Next we"ll desire to make sure we obtain a analysis for the volume of the mountain we have actually in our erlenmeyer flask. As soon as the volume that the acid has been taken we can include in a few drops that the indicator. Now that we know the two volumes we can start to revolve the stop prick so that it releases the basic from the burette into the mountain in the erlenmeyer flask below. That is very important that the base runs right into the acid drip through drip and NOT in a fast constant stream. This is due to the fact that we"ll require to be able to stop the basic at the precise drop it takes to rotate the systems in the erlenmeyer flask a an extremely light pink. If the basic is running in a fast stream into the mountain we"ll never be able to stop it with time to stop the solution from transforming too pink. If our equipment becomes a warm pink it"s since we let means too much base right into the acid and also missed the neutralization point... Our solution is now much more basic 보다 it is acidic.

Each time a autumn of the basic hits the acid in the erlenmeyer flask below we"ll swish the erlenmeyer flask a small to mix the 2 substances together. You"ll an alert that eventually where the drop of the base hits the acid there is a irradiate pink hue... As soon as we swish the erlenmeyer flask that pink hue will revolve clear again together it mixes through the remainder of the mountain in the flask. Remember, the indicator we"re using is clear as soon as the equipment is acidic and then pink once the solution is basic. We desire to prevent the dripping the moment that the entire erlenmeyer flask turns a irradiate pink and does not go earlier to clear as soon as you swish.

Notice the the score is to gain the light pink shade in the erlenmeyer flask... The precise drop the made the clear acidic solution become light pink. This is why you must titrate really slowly, autumn by drop, and swish the flask roughly each time the basic drips right into acidic solution. If we let even one more drop the the basic release into the equipment after the light pink color, or finish point, has been reached then the solution is now straightforward and we did not reach neutralization.

End point is the term we use when we have actually reached the point of neutralization in a lab experiment.

Once you have actually reached the end point and her neutralization reaction is complete, the is time to read the burette again come see exactly how much of the base was provided to neutralize the acid. You"ll need to compare your final reading of the burette to your initial analysis of the burette to get the total volume the the base the was used.

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Vbase = Vfinal - Vinitial

Typically in a titration experiment, one of the systems concentrations is known and the other is not. And also the suggest of perfect the neutrlization experiment is to have the ability to determine the concentration that was formerly unknown. In our titration lab in class we use a 0.5 molar concentration that NaOH (Mbase) and also we perform NOT recognize the concentration the the acetic acid (Macid). We will certainly ise the pieces of details retrieved indigenous the lab, choose the complete volume that the base provided to reach neutralization (Vbase), and also the volume that the acid that us measured in the erlenmeyer flask (Vacid), to calculation the concentration that the acetic acid. We"ll be plugging in our info into the MacidVacid = MbaseVbase equation.