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ground beef microbiome alters with antimicrobial decontamination interventions and also product storage Margaret D. Weinroth, Brianna C. Britton, Kathryn R. McCullough, Jennifer N. Martin, Ifigenia Geornaras, rob Knight, Keith E. Belk, Jessica L. Metcalf
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Ground beef renders up more than fifty percent of the beef spend in the U.S. Market. Although many studies have actually been conducted on microbial safety and shelf life of floor beef limited work has actually been done making use of a culture-independent approach. While previous studies have permitted for the testimonial of a couple of organisms the interest, there is limited work on the microbial community linked with fresh ground beef. In order to have a much more complete picture of the microbial ecology of the product, a culture-independent approach utilizing 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used. The missions of this study were to characterize the new ground beef microbiome and also the result that antimicrobial interventions and also antioxidants, used to beef trim before grinding, and product storage have on neighborhood composition utilizing 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Beef trimmings were treated through antimicrobials and also an antioxidant. Samples to be ground, loafed, and also overwrapped prior to being packaged in modified-atmosphere packaging. Samples to be in dark storage because that 21 days complied with by 5 days in sleeve display. Periodically throughout storage, samples were gathered for microbiological evaluation and DNA isolation. Because of low microbial biomass, just 52 the 210 samples were had in the last analysis. This samples stood for two antimicrobial therapies (peroxyacetic acid, and a sulfuric acid and also sodium sulfate blend) and a control, from day-15 that dark storage and also day-5 of sleeve display. As sample period increased, therefore did the variety of raw reads (P creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and also reproduction in any medium, provided the original writer and resource are credited.

Data Availability: Samples explained in this study have been deposit on QIITA, id 10937 and also EBI ERP113446.

Funding: The author(s) received no particular funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have claimed that no contending interests exist.

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Sample collection and also antimicrobial treatment

Ground beef trimmings (80% lean) were collected from a advertising harvest facility, transported come Colorado State college (Fort Collins, CO) in ~ 1 h the collection, and stored overnight in ~ 4°C. The next day, the trim was separated into five various 90 kg batches for succeeding antimicrobial therapy using a custom-built spray room (Birko/Chad Equipment, Olathe, KS) designed because that trim and sub-primal cuts. The cabinet was fitted with 18 floodjet spray nozzles (0.38 liter/min; Grainger industrial Supplies, Lake Forest, IL), with 10 nozzles affixed over the product belt and also eight nozzles below. Antimicrobial treatments selected for inclusion in the examine are offered by the beef industry and their antimicrobial impacts against virus contamination on beef products has formerly been report <10, 12>. The antimicrobial therapies evaluated were: (1) untreated control, (2) lactic acid (4%, LA; Corbion, Lenexa, KS), (3) a commercially accessible blend the sulfuric acid and also sodium sulfate (pH 1.2, SASS; Zoetis, Parsippany, NJ), (4) peroxyacetic mountain (350 ppm, PAA; Kroff Food Service, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA), and (5) PAA (350 ppm) acidified through SASS (pH 1.2, PAA/SASS). Spray therapies were applied at a push of 0.15 MPa through a product call time that 10 come 11 s. Untreated (control) and treated batches that trim were climate stored in ~ 4°C for 24 h prior to additional processing.